Ya.P. Didukh, O.L. Kuzmanenko
The described study is a part of experimental investigation on nonlinear response of ecosystems to altered precipitation. The experimental site is situated in Karadag nature reserve and consists of 21 plots 2 × 2 m, where the precipitation rate is artificially changed by ±60, ±40, ±20 % of normal rate with three replicates. Vegetation community represents the association Eryngio-Stipetum ponticae, alliance Veronici multifidae — Stipion ponticae, class Festuco-Brometea. The floristic composition in 2011 consisted of 82 species of 62 genera and 20 families. Therophytes / hemicryptophytes ratio >1. The average stock biomass is 1192 g/m2. Synphytoindication analysis shows correlation of ecological factors; their indices fluctuate insignificantly, that proves the similarity of conditions and is important for further monitoring.
SYNANTHROPIZATION OF THE FLORA AND BIOTOPES OF THE SHATSK NATIONAL NATURE PARK
Of the total 868 vascular plant species in the spontaneous flora of the Shatsk National Nature Park, 378 species are synanthropic (244 apophyte species, 134 alien species). Apophyte processes dominate adventitious processes in the flora of the Shatsk National Nature Park, due to human activity in the area since the early days. A significant apophyte content in the studied flora is connected with ecological integrity of the Shatsk National Nature Park and limited spectrum of anthropogenic impact on the phytobiota. Among adventitious species, those of Ancient Mediterranean, North American, Asian and European origin dominate. Forest edges, deforestated plots, high-standing grass areas, shrubs, heathland, dry and mesophytic meadows are the most disturbed ecotopes. They suffer from direct antropogenic impact (haying, graziny, recreational pressure) as well as indirect – self-restoring of abandoned agricultural lands leading to species colonization.
METAPOPULATION ORGANIZATION OF RARE SPECIES OF PLANTS IN THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS
Metapopulation organization is peculiar mostly to short-lived rare taxa (Pedicularis oederi Vahl, Tozzia alpina L. subsp. Carpatica (Woł.) Dostál) and stenotopic plants confined to localities with special ecological and coenotic conditions, e.g. rocks (Achillea oxyloba (DC.) Schultz Bip. subsp. schurii (Schultz Bip.) Heimerl, Draba siliquosa M. Bieb., Rumex scutatus L.) or calcareous fens (Pinguiculа vulgaris L., Swertia perennis L. subsp. alpestris (Baumg. ex Fuss) Simonk.). In short-lived taxa, considerable interannual fluctuations or even extinction of some local populations is compensated by higher stability of the whole metapopulation. Number and size of local components making a metapopulation depend on the colonization ability of the species. Long-term existence of metapopulations of some stenotopic rare species needs suitable patches for colonization. Therefore such patches should be provided after changes in the land use mode, e.g. after farmland abandonment or organization of nature reserves.
L.G. Bezusko, T.S. Karpiuk, S.L. Mosyakin, A.G. Bezusko
N.M. Shiyan, S.L. Mosyakin, M.M. Fedoronchuk
S.O. Kalashnyk, M. Gaidarzhy
S.M. Ziman, O.V. Bulakh
PECULIARITIES OF THE AGE STAGES OF CYMBOCHASMA BORYSTHENICA (PALL. EX SCHLECHT.) KLOKOV ET ZOZ (OROBANCHACEAE)
Results of the study of the greater life cycle of Cymbochasma borysthenica are presented. The attention was focused on peculiarities of the age stages of individuals of the seed and vegetative origin, and of the clone (condividuum) as a whole.
MORPHOLOGICAL AND TAXONOMIC DIFFERENTIATION OF THE SPECIES BROMUS SQUARROSUS L. AND B. JAPONICUS THUNB. EX MURRAY (POACEAE) IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
In order to ascertain the structure and circumscription of species of the Bromus squarrosus and B. japonicus complex, the comprehensive morphological research was conducted. Using discriminant analysis, high similarity between specimens of B. japonicus with haired and glabrous spikelets, and between specimens of B. squarrosus with haired (B. wolgensis) and glabrous spikelets was demonstrated. Taxonomic level of varietas for B. squarrosus var. villosus Roth and B. japonicus var. velutinus Asch. & Graebn. is confirmed. According to the results of discriminant analysis, B. squarrosus and B. japonicus should be accepted as two separate species. The specimens with features of B. anatolicus growing on the Ukrainian territory cannot be considered as a separate species and should be treated as an integral part of B. japonicus. Some diagnostic characters at the species level are critically reviewed.
N.А. Pashkevich, О.І. Blinkova, Т.А. Kozynyatko
ON THE NECESSITY TO INCLUDE A RARE ENDEMIC SPECIES, CRATAEGUS STANKOVII KOSSYCH (ROSACEAE), INTO THE RED DATA BOOK OF UKRAINE
The article provides characteristics of the rare endemic species of the Crimea, Crataegus stankovii Kossych. Based on the herbarium materials and original data, distribution area and number of individuals were specified. Cenotic characteristics of the species habitat are described. Morphological features of the species are shown. As a result of the research, it is recommended to include Crataegus stankovii into the Red Data Book of Ukraine.
ON RESISTANCE OF THE MOSS SPORES SPORELING AND LEAVES REGENERATION TO COMPOUNDS OF HYDRARGYRUM AND SULPHUR
Various sensitivity to sulphur bisulphate of spores sporelings and microregenerants of the mosses Ceratodon purpureus, Pohlia nutans, Tortula modica growing on the substrates after sulphur extraction has been determined. Resistivity of the mosses C. purpureus, T. modica, Funaria hygrometrica, Physcomitrella patens to HgCl2 as a factor capable to initiate epigenetic adaptation on dosed stressor concentrations has been analysed. Spores appeared to be more sensitive to HgCl2 and more resistant to NaHSO3 than microregenerants, which confirms different reaction of mosses to toxic influence of the elements, but under natural conditions it represents the adaptive strategy for choosing the ways of reproduction. High ability of spores and regenerants (from 5 % to 30 %) for survival under HgCl2 and NaHSO3 distress demonstrates the possibility of epigenetic adaptation under natural conditions. Methylation inhibitor of DNA 5-azacytidine stimulated spores sprouting, differentiation of gametophore buds, development of short turfs of T. modica, and selectively enhanced moss resistivity to mercury. As a result, morpho-physiological properties acquired after selective action of mercury and 5-azacytidine appeared to be common and were inherited in three vegetative generations of T. modica. It confirms selection possibility of induced epigenotypes «memorizing» the stressor influence under extreme natural conditions. It may also be supposed that moss reproduction is controlled by the change of methylated DNA state.
DISTRIBUTIONAL FEATURES OF ALGAE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF WATERBODIES OF THE POLESSIAN NATURE RESERVE (UKRAINE)
Algal distribution in different types of waterbodies of the Polessian Nature Reserve was analyzed. It has been found that lotic waterbodies are characterized by the highest species diversity while wetlands are characterized by the lowest one. Compared types of waterbodies differ from each other and have high values of the specificity quotient. Algal species diversity in the waterbodies of the Polessian Nature Reserve decreases from the South-West to the North-East which is associated with an increase of the oligotrophy level.
MYXOMYCETES OF NATURE RESERVE «GORGANY»
Species composition, taxonomic structure and substrate ecology of myxomycetes in the nature reserve «Gorgany» (Ivano-Fran kivs’k region, Ukraine) were investigated. In the territory of the park 64 species (66 intraspecific taxa) of Myxomycota were found, including into 25 genera, 10 families and 6 orders. Species diversity of myxomycetes on substrates, formed by various species of trees, does not correlate with the abundance of these plants in the reserve. Extrazonal plant species demonstrate low diversity of associated species of myxomycetes. Analysis of the pH impact on the diversity of corticolous myxomycetes has shown the presence of two peaks of abundance (pH 4,8-5,2 and 6,2-6,8), corresponding to the bark of coniferous and deciduous trees. Between these two peaks, the diversity of myxomycetes was reduced. Among studied species, 18 ones are new for the Carpathian Forests zone of Ukraine; Arcyria major, Cribraria oregana, Comatricha variabilis, Licea pygmaea and Echinostelium paucifilum were found in Ukraine for the first time. Descriptions, locations data and microphotographs are provided for these species.
THE ROLE OF SUGARS IN SALICYLATE-INDUCED ADAPTATION OF PLANTS TO CADMIUM IONS
The effect of cadmium ions and salicylic acid on sugar content (soluble and total) was studied. The changes of carbohydrate composition of plants under the influence of the investigated factors were estimated. The authors noted a difference in the accumulation of sugars in plant tissues depending on genetically determined mechanisms of plant resistance to the action of heavy metals. It is assumed that the effect of salicylate in a stressful environment is directed to increasing of the natural specific and nonspecific defense reactions of plants.
PECULIARITIES OF GENETIC STRUCTURE OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. (PINACEAE) STANDS ON THE DISTURBED INDUSTRIAL AND AEROTECHNOGENICALLY CONTAMINATED AREAS
Comparative studies of genetic variation and differentiation were carried out at 16 allozyme loci of three local populations of Pinus sylvestris spontaneously formed by skid of seeds from outside on two iron-ore dumps and at the Krivoy Rog cretaceous dump soda production in the Donets Basin, and three young tree stands growing near large industrial factories with large amounts of toxic emissions. It is shown that the populations are slightly different in allelic structure. However, there are distinctions in the level of observed heterozygosity: the highest level found in the iron-ore dump (НО = 0.285), the lowest one in the cretaceous dump (НО = 0.170) and intermediate in the plantations (НО = 0.219-0.230). All six geographically isolated forest stands of different origin were characterized by low genetic differentiation (DN = 0.013).
VOLODYMYR IPOLYTOVYCH LYPSKY (on the 150th Anniversary of his Birth)
The article traces the scientific path and scientific-organizational activity of the well-known botanist, florist, taxonomist, convener of the Botanical gardens, Academician and President (1922-1928) of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, corresponding mem ber of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
IN MEMORY. N.V. ATURINA (1901–1979)
Information about curriculum vitae and sciences heritages of sciences physiology and teacher of the Uzhgorod State University, docent N.V. Aturina are presented.
O.M. Kozak, Ya. P. Didukh
S.M. Ziman, Y. Kadota, O.V. Bulakh
V.V. Protopopova, М.V. Shevera, I.M. Anishchenko, N.G. Terent’eva
RARE SPECIES OF THE GENUS SPIRAEA L. (ROSACEAE) OF THE UKRAINIAN FLORA AND THEIR CONSERVATION STATUS
Distribution of two rare species of the genus Spiraea L., S. polonica Błocki and S. pikoviensis Besser, in Ukraine is analyzed. Current state of their populations is shown and the main conservation measures are provided.
O.M. Tsarenko, M.M. Peregrym
DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL FOR EXPRESS ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCES OF HELICHRYSUM ARENARIUM (L.) MOENCH (ASTERACEAE)
Results of developing a model for express assessment of resources of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench in the field are presented. The model is based on statistic analysis of the indicators significant for raw materials in the species populations, including methods of multivariate regression analysis. Among the six analyzed indicators for H. arenarium, statistically significant were the following: projective cover (P < 0,000001), density of shoots (p < 0,0001), and weight of a compound inflorescence (p < 0,003). The application of stepper regression has allowed us to identify the most significant variables and to formulate an algorithm for determining the stock density by all indicators and by some of them.
ЭКОЛОГИЯ ОПЫЛЕНИЯ STEVENIELLA SATYRIOIDES (SPRENG.) SCHLTR. (ORCHIDACEAE) В УРОЧИЩЕ АЯН (КРЫМ)
Безнектарная орхидея Steveniella satyrioides (Spreng.) Schltr. распространена в Крыму в пределах горной части полуострова и известна из 26 локалитетов, 10 из которых представлены находками, сделанными в последние 50 лет. Изучена экология опыления вида в урочище Аян (Симферопольский р-н). В разные годы здесь цвело от 1 до 55 экземпляров данного вида, в один год – ни один. Уровень опыления S. satyrioides колеблется от 16 до 79 % и положительно коррелирует с плотностью специализированных опылителей – самок складчатокрылых ос родов Vespula Thomson, 1869 и Dolichovespula Roh wer, 1916. Обсуждается возможный механизм привлечения ос на цветки и его эволюционное становление.
ОГНЕЗАЩИТНЫЕ ПОЛОСЫ В БЕЛОВЕЖСКОМ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОМ ПАРКЕ КАК РЕФУГИУМ СЕГЕТАЛЬНОЙ ФЛОРЫ
Учитывая широкие масштабы запущенных сельськохозяйственных угодий, авторы исследовали флору огнезащитных полос в Беловежском национальном парке как потенциальный рефугиум сегетальной флоры. Выявлено 136 таксонов сосудистых растений, в т.ч. 101 общий для сегетальной флоры вырубок Беловежи. Наиболее распространенными видами являются Anthemis arvensis, Juncus bufonius и Scleranthus аnnuus, наиболее интересными – Peplis portula і Ranunculus sardous, которые раньше произрастали во влажных бороздах. Наши результаты указывают на то, что вспаханные огнезащитные полосы могут служить рефугиумом сегетальной флоры.
З. Целька, M. Драпиковская, M. Лембич, П. Скудлаж, K. Taлага, K. Выдра
PALYNOFLORAS OF THE DUBNO PALEOSOIL COMPLEX DEPOSITS IN THE VOLYNO-PODILLYA REGION
In the article, the analysis of palynological characteristics of the Dubno paleosoil complex in the Volyno-Podillya region is provided. Complex structure of these deposits based on the most repre sentative sections is confirmed. In our investigations division of the Middle Valdai into several interstadials is palynologically justified. The total list of collective fossil flora of the Riss-Wurm interglacial (21 genera, 26 species), Early Valdai (18 genera, 19 species) and Middle Valdai (10 genera, 12 species) interstadials was identified for the Volyno-Podillya region. As a result, we identified the fol lo wing model taxa for paleochorological and cho rological re constructions: Alnus viridis, A. glutinosa, A. incana, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Quercus pubescens, Q. robur, Q. petraea, Fagus sylva tica, Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, T. plathyphyllos, Hedera helix, Taxus baccata, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Betula humulus, Hippophae rhamnoides.
LEMNA TURIONIFERA LANDOLT (ARACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FOR THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
The article provides information on morphological, chorological, ecological and coenotic features of a new species for the flora of Ukraine, Lemna turionifera Landolt. The status of this species in the flora of the country is briefly discussed. Communities of the association Lemnetum minori-turioniferae are reported for the study area for the first time.
V.I. Melnyk, V.I. Goncharenko, R.I. Savchuk
TRACHOMITUM VENETUM (L.) WOODSON SUBSP. SARMATIENSE (WOODSON) AVETISJAN (APOCYNACEAE) IN THE SEA OF AZOV REGION
Data on current localities of a rare disjunctive taxon, Trachomitum venetum subsp. sarmatiense, in the Sea of Azov region are presented. Coenotic characteristics of the species localities are given.
NEW RECORDS OF MACROMYCETES FROM THE RED DATA BOOK OF UKRAINE IN HALYCH NATIONAL NATURE PARK
New records of macromycetes listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine are reported from Halych National Nature Park. The studies were carried out during 2010-2012. Geographical distribution of the mushroom species and their ecological-coenotic features in the studied area are provided.
NEW FOR UKRAINE RECORDS OF TERRESTRIAL ALGAE FROM KARADAG NATURE RESERVE
The paper contains data on 12 new for the Ukrainian flora species of terrestrial algae (aerophytes and lichen photobionts) from the territory of Karadag Nature Reserve (Crimea, Ukraine): Gloeocap sopsis chroococcoides (Novácek) Komárek, Asterochloris excen trica (P.A. Archibald) Skaloud et Peksa, Coccomyxa mucigena Jaag, C. rayssiae Chodat et Jaag, Leptosira thrombii Tscherm.-Woess, Prasiococcus calcarius (J.B. Petersen) Vischer, Trebouxia asymmet rica Friedl et G. Gartner, T. decolorans Ahmadjian, T. gelatinosa Ahmadjian ex P.A. Archibald, T. impressa Ahmadjian, T. jamesii (Hildreth et Ahmadjian) G. Gartner, Fottea cylindrica Hindak. Short descriptions, illustrations, locations and general distribution are given.
EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM TEMPERATURE STRESSES ON THE LEVEL OF INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID IN PLANTS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF ECOLOGICAL STRATEGY
We analyzed the level of free and conjugated forms of indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) in 7 day seedlings of plants with different types of ecological strategy in control conditions and after short-term high and low temperature stresses. It was revealed that in control conditions the level of the conjugated form of IAA in violent Festuca pratensis and ruderal species Amaranthus caudatus and Brassica campestris was higher compared with the free form of the plant hormone. Patient Rumex patientia × R. tianshanicus showed a high level of the free form and not of conjugated IAA. The level of free IAA rose in violent and ruderal species after heat stress and in patient species after cold stress. The obtained data allow concluding that changes in the level of conjugated and free forms of IAA in the investigated plants after short-term temperature stresses correlate with the type of their ecological strategy. IAA content may be used as a possible biomarker of plant thermotolerance and their ecological strategy type.
THE PATTERNS OF PHYTOHORMONE DISTRIBUTION IN ORGANS OF PERSICARIA AMPHIBIA (L.) DELARBRE (POLYGONACEAE) DURING OF FLOWERING PERIOD
Distribution of phytohormones in Persicaria amphibia (L.) Delarbre under different conditions of water supply was studied. It is shown that distribution of phytohormones in the organs of P. amphibia is determined by their interaction. A conclusion is made that processes of plant growth and adaptation are provided by correlation of phytohormones.
DEVELOPMENT OF M.G. CHOLODNY’S DOCTRINE OF PHYTOHORMONES IN IVAN FRANKO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF L’VIV
Development of academician M.G. Cholodny’s doctrine on phytohormones and natural and synthetic plant growth regulators at the Biology Faculty of National Ivan Franko University of L’viv is considered in chronological sequence. Contribution of individual scientists, professors and graduate students of Plant physiology and ecology department in development of phytohormonology is highlighted.
FAMILIES AND ORDERS OF ANGIOSPERMS OF THE FLORA OF UKRAINE: A PRAGMATIC CLASSIFICATION AND PLACEMENT IN THE PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEM
The article provides a discussion of principles of high-rank classification of angiosperms from the viewpoint of a new vision of the angiosperm phylogeny based on molecular phylogenetic and traditional data. It is argued that recognition of both monophyletic and paraphyletic taxa should be recommended at the supraordinal levels. Angiosperms are recognized as a division Magno liophyta , with three classes, Magnoliopsida (basal angiosperms, with subclasses Nympha eidae and Magnoliidae ), Liliopsida (monocots, with subclasses Alismatidae , Liliidae , and Commelinidae ), and Rosopsida (eudicots, with subclasses Ranunculidae , Hamamelidae , Rosidae , Caryophyllidae , and Asteridae ). A comparison table is provided showing correspondence of these taxa and units recognized by other recent systems (APG III, 2009; Chase & Reveal, 2009, Takhtajan, 2009; Shipunov, 2013). A synopsis of families and orders of angiosperms occurring in Ukraine (native and widely cultivated plants) contains 174 recognized families placed in 70 orders. In cases of different circumscription of families and orders, comments are provided in favor of the adopted circumscription. The orders and families recognized here are mainly more narrowly circumscribed than those in the APG system.
M.M. Fedoronchuk, L.M. Gubar, O.A. Futorna
The list of species of vascular plants of the family Poaceae (genera Helictotrichon, Hierochloë, Koeleria, Lolium, Melica, Milium, Molinia, Panicum) described from Ukraine and typification of some species are provided. The following data for each species are provided: basionym, original nomenclatural citation; type according to the protologue, and holotype, isotype, lectotype, neotype, or topotype; herbarium(-a) in which the specimen(s) is (are) deposited.
The list of 29 species of the family Lamiaceae described from Ukraine (genera Acinos Moench, Ajuga L., Ballota L., Betonica L., Calamintha Mill., Galeopsis L., Lamium L., Melissa L., Melittis L., Nepeta L., Origanum L.) is presented based on analyses of the protologues and type specimens. The basionym, main synonymy, nomenclatural type (protologue, holotype, lectotype, isotype, or neotype) and place of storage for each species are given.
THE POLLEN GRAINS OF CROPS AND WEEDY PLANTS IN THE LATE HOLOCENE DEPOSITS OF UKRAINIAN POLISSIA
In the article, the analysis of palynological characteristics of the Holocene deposits of Ukrainian Polissia is provided. The list of sections and archaeological sites with the Late Holocene palynofloras was identified. These palynofloras contains pollen grains of crops and weedy plants (41 species). As a result, the list of model taxa (Cannabis cf. sativa, Juglans regia, Linum usitatissimum, Agrostemma githago, Centaurea cyanus, Cichorium intybus, Che nopodium album aggr., C. polyspermum, C. suecicum, Dysphania botrys, Polycnemum arvense, Plantago major) for paleochorological studies of the last 2500 years was set for the of Ukrainian Polissia region is presented.
THE FLORA OF THE KARALARSKIY REGIONAL LANDSCAPE PARK (CRIMEA)
Current characteristics of the flora of one of the largest Ukrainian steppe arrays, where the Karalarskiy Regional Landscape Park was founded in 2007, are given. The main parameters of the flora are analyzed. Rarity component of the park flora is characterized; further steps in nature conservation in the Crimean Pryazovya (Azov Sea area) are proposed.
FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY OF LEAVES IN SOME MEADOW FORB SPECIES ON MEADOW PASTURES
The leaf morphogenesis of three meadow forb species, Convolvulus arvensis L., Prunella vulgaris L., and Phalacroloma annua (L). Dumort, was studied on the floodplain meadows of the Psyol River under pasture loads of different levels. The integrated estimation of the morphogenesis using the index of fluctuating leaf asymmetry for the investigated species is given. It is established that along the gradient of pasture digression the index of fluctuating asymmetry in Convolvulus arvensis and Prunella vulgaris increases regularly while in Phalacroloma annua the level of fluctuating asymmetry does not change. The results of the research are recommended for biomonitoring.
SEED PROPAGATION AND RENEWAL OF THE POPULATION OF SILENE JAILENSIS N.I. RUBTZOV ( CARYOPHYLLACEAE ) ON THE SOUTH-EASTERN SLOPE OF NIKITSKAYA YAILA IN THE MOUNTAIN CRIMEA
Dissemination, propagation and renewal of the population of Silene jailensis ( Caryophyllaceae ) was studied during 2004–2011 on the south-eastern slope of Nikitskaya Yaila (1350–1400 m above sea level). Productivity of plants depends on the development rhythm of elementary shoots. Only those shoots formed from summer till late spring of the next year achieve the generative phase. The main modes of dissemination are ballistochory, anemochory, and mirmecochory. The most efficient mode of dispersal is ballistochory near the plants of age g3. Less efficient modes of dispersal are anemochory and mirmecochory near the plants of age g2, regularly producing large quantities of seeds. Ballistochory near the plants of such age is not efficient because of the dense structure of shoots. These propagation peculiarities show the main strategy of the population renewal: plants are maintained in localities on the slope edge, slightly spreading from there in horizontal and vertical directions. This strategy makes migration of the species almost impossible.
STRUCTURE, DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION OF THE SECRETORY SYSTEM OF HUMULUS LUPULUS L. (CANNABACEAE)
In the shoots of Humulus lupulus L., secretory canals of schizogenous-lysigenous type were discovered. It has been found that functional schizogenous-lysigenous canals are active on the stage of rapid shoot growth. It has been established that in the tissues of vegetative and generative organs of hop plants, transitional forms of lacticifers are developed, from unicellulars with symplast and intrusive growth to multicellulars formed during the process of incorporation of new cells. The evacuation processes of terpenes, flavonoids and other products of the secondary metabolism from epithelial cells to the cavity of secretory channel were shown.
NEW LOCALITIES OF EUPHORBIA DAVIDII SUBILS (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN THE LEFT-BANK FOREST-STEPPE ZONE OF UKRAINE
The information about new localities of Euphorbia davidii Subils in the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine is presented. New localities of the species were found in 2011–2012 along railways near Kharkiv city (Kharkiv Region) and Grebinka town (Poltava Region); in the latter site, the species had a large population.
NEW LOCALITIES OF RARE SPECIES, OF STERNBERGIA COLCHICIFLORA WALDST. ET KIT. (AMARYLLIDACEAE) AND BULBOCODIUM VERSICOLOR (KER GAWL.) SPRENG. (COLCHICACEAE), IN SOUTHERN BESSARABIA
New localities of rare species, Sternbergia colchiciflora and Bulbocodium versicolor, in Southern Bessarabia are described. The current state of their populations is considered. Recommendations for the improvement of plant conservation in Odessa Region are proposed.
A NEW FIND OF ANACAMPTIS CORIOPHORA (L.) R.M. BATEMAN, PRIDGEON ET M.W. CHASE (ORCHIDACEAE) IN THE SUMY GEOBOTANICAL DISTRICT
A new locality of a rare orchid species, Anacamptis coriophora (L.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W. Chase ( Orchidaceae Juss.), in the flora of Ukraine is reported. It was discovered in the floodplain of the Psel River, in the Sumy geobotanical district in 2011. Information about geographical distribution, state of the population and ecological-coenotic features of the locality of A. Coriophora are given.
ECOLOGIСAL AND PHYTOCOENOTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FAGETAE SYLVATICAE OF UKRAINE AND POSSIBILITY TO EXPAND THEIR AREAS DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING
The area of beech forests has decreased by 129.9 thousand ha or by 22.2 % over the last two centuries. Anthropogenic reasons of this phenomenon have been studied. Chorological and coenotical characteristics of beech forests are given. Based on the hydrothermal coefficient of G.T. Selyaninov, the distribution of beech forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians and Opillya-Podillyan region is demonstrated. Possibilities to expand the area of beech forests due to global warming are considered. The necessity of preservation of the virgin beech phytocenoses is substantiated.
MORPHOLOGIC VARIATION AND VITALITY STRUCTURE OF FRITILLARIA RUTHENICA WIKSTR. ( LILIACEAE ) COENOTIC POPULATIONS IN THE NATIONAL NATURE PARK «PYRYATYNSKY» (POLTAVA REGION)
Results of investigations of morphometric variation, parameters of seeds production, features of vitality, and correlation structure of three model coenotic populations of Fritillaria ruthenica Wikstr., a rare species on the territory of NNP «Pyryatynsky», are presented. It has been found that the species prefers communities of the classes Trifolio-Geranietea, Querco-Fagetea, and Robinietea. The zonal structure of a monocarpic shoot is stable in various habitats. Nevertheless, the environment determines a significant level of morphometric variation demonstrated by the results of canonical discriminant analysis and dispersions of mean number for 26 parameters of the structure of F. ruthenica. The correlation structure indicates a high level of morphological integration of the specimens. The obtained data on seed production of this species agree with those for F. ruthenica on the northern limit of its range. According to the type of vitality structure, coenotic populations are dif ferentiated into depressive (in Trifolio-Geranietea community) and equipoised (in Querco-Fagetea and Robinietea communities) ones. Ecological parameters of the habitat are highlighted as a main factor of this differentiation. Special attention is given to active and passive measures for conservation of F. ruthenica.
DIVERSITY AND PHYTOCOENOTIC STRUCTURE OF THE BOGS WITHIN THE MIDDLE PRIDNESTROVYA AREA
As a result of geobotanical studies in 2011–2012 within the Middle Pridnestrovya area, 29 bogs near 22 settlements were found. About 120 complete geobotanical descriptions have been made. Majority of the bogs have herbaceous or shrub-herbaceous cover, rarely forest vegetation. The most widespread geomorphological types are back swamps.On them, various associations with prevailing reed, reed-sedge, cattail and mannagrass communities with rather poor flora are represented. On the valley bogs, more frequent is vegetation with the rhizome sedges predominant in the second herbaceous layer, mainly Carex acuta L. and C. acutiformis Ehrh. Plant cover of hanging bogs is highly variable within the limits of the bog depending on height of a slope and amount of moisture on its surface.
SPECIES OF TERRICOLOUS LICHENS NEW FOR UKRAINE
Distinguishing features, localities and ecology of lichens which are new for Ukraine from south and south-east of the country are provided, namely for Circinaria gyrosa Sohrabi, Sipman, V. John & V.J. Rico, Cladonia diversa Asperges, Collema substellatum H. Magn., Fulgensia fulgida (Nyl.) Szatala, Gregorella humida (Kulh.) Lumbsch, Staurothele epigea Breuss et Etayo, and Xanthoparmelia pulvinaris (Gyeln.) Ahti & D. Hawksw.
METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE MOSS VEGETATION STUDIES
Methodological aspects of studying bryocommunities and features of their classification are characterized. The original forms of geo botanical descriptions for bryocoenoses on different substrates are given. The use of the Braun-Blanquet method for mosses cla ssification is substantiated.
FUNGI OF THE FAMILY PUCCINIASTRACEAE IN UKRAINE
The family Pucciniastraceae is represented in Ukraine by 25 species of 7 genera ( Pucciniastrum G.H. Otth – 8 species, Milesina Magnus – 7 species, Melampsoridium Kleb. – 3 species, Hyalopsora Magnus, Melampsorella J. Schröt. and Uredinopsis Magnus – 2 species each, Naohidemyces S. Sato, Katsuya & Y. Hirats. – 1 species). In the Ukrainian Carpathians, 23 species of this family are reported, while in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine – 11 species, Polissia – 4, and in the Steppe zone – 3 species. Keys for identification of Ukrainian genera and species of Pucciniastraceae are presented. The article is illustrated with 18 microphotographs.
НОВЫЕ ДЛЯ УКРАИНЫ ВИДЫ РОДА SCUTELLINIA (PYRONEMATACEAE, PEZIZALES) ИЗ ВИДОВЕЦКОГО МАССИВА (КАРПАТСКИЙ БИОСФЕРНЫЙ ЗАПОВЕДНИК)
Сообщается о трех новых для Украины видах рода Scutellinia , собранных на территории Свидовецкого заповедного массива (Карпатский биосферный заповедник): S. crinita (Bull.) Lambotte, S. crucipila (Cooke et W. Phillips) J. Moravec и S. pseudotrechispora (J. Schröt.) Le Gal. Приведены их краткие описания, данные об местонахождении и общем распространении, а также оригинальные иллюстрации.
CHARACTERIZATION OF ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE LEAF SURFACE IN SPECIES OF THE GENUS PILOSELLA VAILL. (ACTERACEAE) IN THE CRIMEAN FLORA
For the first time the surface ultrastructure of leaf epidermis of 12 species of the genus Pilosella in the flora of Crimea was studied using SEM. Both common (amphystomatic features, arrangement of stomata relative to the level of basal epidermal cells, crystalloid and crusts types of wax deposits; anomocytic type of stomata) and specific characteristics of the leaf ultrastructure of the studied species have been revealed. Most of them are additional diagnostic characters on the sectional level (surface relief type, presence and type of trichomes) and the species level (surface relief type). Similar surface ultrastructure of leaf epidermis in hybrid and parent species was found.
D.V. Dubyna, T.P. Dziuba, S.M. Iemelianova
SYNTAXOMY OF FESTUCO-PUCCINELLIETEA SOÓ EX VICHEREK 1973 CLASS IN UKRAINE
A syntaxonomical revision of the class Festuco-Puccinellietea in Ukraine has been conducted. According to the requirements of ICPN the validization of three associations' names (Puccinellietum bilykianae, Limonio tomentelli-Festucetum pseudodalmaticae, Limonio meyeri-Festucetum pseudodalmaticae) and correction of the name of one association (Lepidio latifolii-Puccinellietum giganteae) have been made. The new association Agrostio maeoticae-Caricetum distantis is described. It has been established that the leading factors of the ecological differentiation of syntaxa are soil moisture and climate humidity. On the base of environmental factors combination the most isolation is demonstrated by unions Festuco valesiacae-Limonion gmelinii, Camphorosmo-Agropyrion desertorum, Atraphaxio-Capparion and Glycyrrhizion glabrae.
ECOLOGICAL MAPS OF THREELATERAL BIOSPHERE RESERVATION «WESTERN POLESIE» (SHATSKY NNP) AND THEIR ANALYSIS
Habitat map of Shatsky NNP (threelateral biosphere reservation «Western Polesie»), which includes 22 specifyings that represents the main ecosystems of the region was first created. On the basis of this map series of environmental maps including soil water regime, soil acidity, nitrogen and carbonate content, total salt regime, thermoregime, continentality and crio-climate are created. The gradient distribution of the factors and features of habitats differentiation are analyzed on the maps.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE INGULETS REGIONAL ECOCORRIDOR: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES
We performed an analysis of the vegetation cover at the «Ingulets Steppe» Reservation and its adjacent areas. It was estimated that there is a non-correspondence between formal borders and real distributions of sozologically valuable communities. We discovered that surrounding areas have a high conservation value in terms of unique native plant communities. We also estimated the damage caused to plant communities due to granite quarry development. As a result, we proposed a correction scheme of the native reservation.
MODERN APPROACHES TO CLASSIFICATION OF FRUITS OF BRASSICACEAE: A CASE STUDY OF TAXA OCCURRING IN UKRAINE
The faceted classification of fruits of Brassicaceae (taxa of the flora of Ukraine) has been developed on the basis of studies of their structural diversity in the species growing with in the territory of Ukraine and beyond its borders, as well as the analysis of the published data. It is hypothesized that the primary ancestal type of fruit in Brassicaceae was a monomericarp or valvoid one (siliqua without the «beak»). Dimericarp – siliqua with the «beak», is considered a specialized, novel carpological structure in the family. The absence of a septum and the formation of the particular separation zone in fruits, changing the growth direction of carpels, should also be considered among innovative morphological features of the fruit, which resulted in increase of the general level of their structural organization. Reducing the size of the fruit, the gradual reduction of its elements, the weakening of functioning of the locular separation zone, reduction of the number of seeds in the fruit, and the reduction of the loculi of these are characters that enhance the adaptivity of species to changing environmental conditions. In the flora of Ukraine best represented are the genera and species that have latiseptate-segregate-locular long or short monomericarps (Cardamine, Arabis, Sisymbrium, Barbarea, Rorippa, Hesperis, Alyssum, Schivereckia et all.) and synarticulate-septate dimericarps (Diplotaxis, Kibera, Eruca, Brassica, Erucastrum et all.). Aseptato-segregate monomericarps (Biscutella) and choriarticulate-septate or choriarticulate-pseudoseptate dimericarps (Rapistrum, Cakile, Crambe) are represented by a few species and genera. It is assumed that carpological evolution in Brassicaceae was directed toward the formation of the diversity of propagules from the «protected» seeds, i.e. is a reflection of optimization ways of dissemination and distribution of plants. For the studied crucifers, seven types of generative diaspores caused by structural features of the fruit are identified.
IDENTIFICATION KEY FOR THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS ARTEMISIA L. (ASTERACEAE) OF THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
On the basis of critical systematic revision of the genus Artemisia L. in the flora of Ukraine, an original comprehensive dichotomous key for identification of species is proposed.
ВСТРЕЧАЕМОСТЬ ИНВАЗИОННЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ В АНТРОПОГЕННЫХ ЭКОСИСТЕМАХ РАВНИННОЙ УКРАИНЫ ПО ШИРОТНОМУ ГРАДИЕНТУ
Приведен сравнительный анализ встречаемости чужеродных видов сосудистых растений на шести тестовых участках площадью около 30 км2 каждый. Они расположены между 51°20′ c. ш. – 46°45′ c. ш. и 28°9′ в. д. – 32°35′ в. д. в Полесье (Овруч), Лесостепи (Ружин, Шаргород, Теплик) и Сухой Степи (Музыковка, Круглоозерка). Полевыми учетами, проведеннями по методу Уиттекера, в составе спонтанной флоры тест-участков обнаружено 185 видов-антропофитов: Овруч – 147, Ружин – 156, Шаргород – 157, Теплик – 154, Музыковка – 110, Круглоозерка – 108 видов. Доля чужеродных видов возрастала в направлении с севера на юг от 34% (Ружин, Шаргород) до 49% (Музыковка) и в значительной степени зависела от уровня деградации растительного покрова, вызванной егоантропогенной трансформацией. Из 185-ти чужеродных видов 80, или 43%, встречались на всех участках. По сходству–различию видового состава этой фракции тестове участки по коэффициенту Жаккара четко распадаются на уровне cj = 0,49 на две плеяды: полесско-лесостепную с внутренним сходством cj =0,89 – cj = 0,74 и сухостепную с внутренним сходством cj = 0,90. Увеличение степени адвентизации флоры с севера на юг подтверждается большей на 10% долей археофитов в составе спонтанной флоры на южных тестовых участках. Сделан вывод о необходимости организации контроля видов-антропофитов для научных целей и оперативных мер не только на общегосударственном уровне, но также на уровне природных выделов и административных единиц.
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE ALIEN FRACTION OF THE FLORA OF THE CRIMEAN PENINSULA (UKRAINE)
The checklist of alien plants of the Crimean Peninsula, based on results of analysis of literature data and original research, is presented in the article. The adventive fraction comprises 375 species of vascular plants from 78 families, among them 76 archaeophytes and 299 kenophytes, comprising 13% of total taxa of the regional flora. Its taxonomic, biomorfological structure (life forms), primary geographical origin, degree of naturalization and chronoelement distribution have been analyzed. According to the degree of naturalization, the group is represented by epoecophytes (122 taxa), colonophytes (120), ephemerophytes (89), and agriophytes (44). The following families prevail in the taxonomic spectrum: Asteraceae (49 taxa), Poaceae (32), Brassicaceae (24), Fabaceae (22), Rosaceae (15), Lamiaceae (14), Chenopodiaceae (14), Apiaceae (13), Solanaceae (12), Scrophulariaceae (11), and Amaranthaceae (10 taxa). A comprehensive analysis revealed the following features in the structure of the alien fraction of the Crimean flora: higher instability index (0.56), increase of the share of colonophytes (32.0%) and ephemerophytes (23.7%); prevalence of species of the Ancient Mediterranean (38.7%), and Asian (20.0%) origin; increase of the number of trees (up to 11.2%) and shrubs (6.9%), with dominance of annual (47.5%) and perennial (24.8%) species in the life form spectrum.
INVASIVE SPECIES IN THE KHARKIV URBAN FLORA
This article analyzes the expansion of 14 species of invasive alien plant in the urban flora of Kharkiv. Biomorphic, coenomorphic, ecological and geographical analyses are discussed. The distribution maps of these species in the city are provided.
ДЕЙСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ ОБНАРОДОВАНИЕ НАЗВАНИЙ ТРЕХ НОТОВИДОВ (MALINAE, ROSACEAE)
Три названия в нотородах ×Cydolus, ×Pyralus, ×Sorbaronia (Malinae, Rosaceae) не были действительно обнародованы, поскольку в качестве типов для каждого таксона были обозначены два или три сбора. Осуществлено действительное обнародование названий ×Sorbaronia kovalevii Mezhenskyj, ×Cydolus rudenkoana Mezhenskyj, ×Pyralus kursakovii Mezhenskyj с указанием одного сбора, определенного как голотип для каждого нотовида.
A NEW FIND OF ECHINOCHLOA MICROSTACHYA (WIEGAND) RYDB. (POACEAE) IN UKRAINE
Information about a new locality for the territory of the Romny-Poltava Geobotanical Region and for Ukraine of the alien species Echinochloa microstachya is provided (Romny, railways).
ASPLENIUM LEPIDUM C. PRESL SUBSP. HAUSSKNECHTII (GODET ET REUT.) BROWNSEY (ASPLENIACEAE), A NEW TAXON OF FERNS IN THE FLORA OF EASTERN EUROPE
A rare fern, Asplenium lepidum C. Presl subsp. haussknechtii (Godet et Reut.) Brownsey, was found in the Crimean Nature Reserve. This is the first report of this taxon for the flora of Crimea, Ukraine, and Eastern Europe. The issues on morphology, taxonomy and origin of the Crimean population of Asplenium lepidum are discussed.
LICHENS OF THE LISNYKY BOTANICAL PRESERVE (KYIV, UKRAINE) AND THEIR INDICATOR VALUES
The lichen flora of different deciduous (oak, maple, ash, etc.) and pine forest stands in the Lisnyky Botanical Preserve (Kyiv, Ukraine) within 17 plots was studied. So far 126 lichen species and 3 lichenicolous fungi, e.g. Athelia arachnoidea, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis and Xanthoriicola physciae, were listed. Agonimia borysthenica is recently described asa a new to science lichen species. Bacidia pycnidiata and Thelenella pertusariella are reported as new for Ukraine. Absconditella lignicola, Anisomeridium biforme, Bacidia laurocerasi, B. subincompta, Bactrospora dryina, Lecania croatica, Stenocybe pullatula, Verrucaria viridigrana are reported for the first time for the plain part of Ukraine and 17 species are new for Kyiv Region. The distribution, ecology and conservation status of rare species and indicators of old-growth woodland are briefly discussed. The importance of the Lisnyky Botanical Preserve for the maintenance of lichen biodiversity is clearly illustrated by the presence of 17 indicator species which are included in the Red Lists of many European countries.
LICHENICOLOUS FUNGI ARTHONIA PHAEOPHYSCIAE GRUBE & MATZER (ARTHONIACEAE) AND TAENIOLELLA PHAEOPHYSCIAE D. HAWKSW. (ANAMORPHIC ASCOMYCOTA), NEW SPECIES FOR UKRAINE
Two lichenicolous fungi, Arthonia phaeophysciae Grube & Matzer (Arthoniaceae) and Taeniolella phaeophysciae D. Hawksw. (Anamorphic Ascomycota), are reported as new for the mycobiota of Ukraine. These species were collected in southern and western parts of Ukraine.
ONTOMORPHOGENESIS OF CHAMAECYTISUS ALBUS (HACQ.) ROTHM. (FABACEAE) AND STATE IN THE LOCAL POPULATION IN THE СHAPLYA RESERVATE (PODILSKY TOVTRY NATIONAL NATURE PARK)
The results of studies of the state of a local population of Chamaecytisus albus (Hacq.) Rothm. (Fabaceae) of the Chaplya reservate (Podilsky Tovtry National Nature Park, Ukraine) are presented. Ontomorphogenesis of the species is described. The ontogenetic states of the species (especially clones and single partial individuals) and ontogenetic structure (the population is characterized by full – member composition and left-sided age spectra) are determined.
NEW DATA ON DISTRIBUTION OF RARE SPECIES OF GALANTHUS L. AND ARUM L. IN PRYDNIPROVSKA UPLAND
New localities for the following rare species in Prydniprovska Upland are reported: Galanthus plicatus M. Bieb., G. nivalis L. (Amaryllidaceae) listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (2009) and Arum besserianum Schott, a rare species in Cherkasy Region. The habitats and population status for each species are described. Recommendations on their conservation are provided.
NEW RECORDS OF TWO RARE MACROMYCETES IN THE NORTH WESTERN PART OF THE BLACK SEA REGION (UKRAINE)
As a result of mycological expeditions to the North western part of the Black Sea region in 2010–2012, two new records of macromycetes listeыd in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (2009), Leucoagaricus barssii (Zeller) Vellinga and Myriostoma coliforme (Dicks.) Corda, are reported. Detailed diagnosеs, original figures of microstructures, and descriptions of habitat vegetation are given.
EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM TEMPERATURE STRESSES ON HSP70 SYNTHESIS AND LEVEL OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS L. SEEDLINGS
We analyzed the level of HSP70 and hydrogen peroxide in 7-dayold seedlings of Amaranthus caudatus L. in control and after short-term high and low temperature stresses. HSP70 was identified strongly activated in control and its active synthesis was shown after short-term temperature stress (2 hours, +40 °C). The level of HSP70 after short-term cold stress (2 hours, +4 °C) practically did not change. It was shown that concentration of hydrogen peroxide in 7-day-old seedlings of Amaranthus caudatus increased after short-term temperature stresses. The response to the heat stress was much stronger that to the cold one. The possible role of hydrogen peroxide as a component of nonspecific stressreaction system of the plant is discussed. HSP70 synthesis and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide after short-term heat stress correlate with thermotolerance of Amaranthus caudatus. Our results support that hydrogen peroxide molecules act as signaling agents. They activate HSP70 synthesis which protects plant from the high temperature stress.
L.G. Bezusko, T.S. Karpiuk, S.L. Mosyakin, A.G. Bezusko, O.M. Korniyenko
Results of paleopalynological and paleoethnobotanical studies were obtained for the deposits from cultural layers of seven Early Medieval settlements of the Slovechno-Ovruch Ridge (XIII century A.D.). The species composition of the cultivated and weedy components (58 taxa) was identified. The list of model synanthrope taxa for paleochorological studies is produced. On the example of Slovechno-Ovruch Ridge, first maps based on paleopalynological and ethnobotanical data are developed for distribution of model taxa in space and time (XIII century).
The article provides an analysis of pubescence characters of 12 species of Pilosella represented in the Crimean flora; the cladogram based on original data of pubescence is plotted. Results of the study agree with the concept of a wide circumscription of species in Pilosella. Based on pubescence characteristics and other morphological data, a new combination at the subspecies level is proposed, P. echioides (Lumn.) Schultz et Sch. Bip. subsp. asiatica (Nägeli & Peter) Pavl.-Bar., comb. nov.
The article is devoted to the critically studied genus Medicago L. in the flora of Ukraine. The system of the genus was developed to include two subgenera, three sections, seven subsections, and four series represented in Ukraine. Four new subsections and four new series are validated. The synonymy and nomenclatural type are given for each species. A key to the Medicago species is proposed. Information about ecological conditions and geographical distribution of these species is provided.
Pollen morphology of 10 species of the subgenus Phelipanche (genus Orobanche L.) was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of the studied species are 3-colpate, rarely 2-colpate, 3-colporate, and inaperturate; prolate, spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, medium-sized. Six types of sculpture are identified: retipilate, retipilate-scabrate, granulate, granulate-foveolate, scabrate-verrucate, and verrucate. The palynomorphological data were analyzed on the background of the system of Orobanche (according to Tzvelev, 1981) and current molecular phylogenetic data. The type of aperture, pattern of exine surface, shape, size, exine thickness, and colpi structure are the most important species features. Peculiarities of pollen grains confirm the placement of the studied species in the subgenus Phelipanche, but the taxonomic status of some species or subspecies remains problematic.
Taxonomic structure of the vascular flora of Biloozersky National Nature Park was analyzed. It comprises 512 species, 315 genera, 92 families, and 4 divisions. The leading role in the park flora spectrum belongs to the family Asteraceae (13.7 %) which is typical for the majority of Holarctic floras. The index for ratio between the numbers of Asteraceae and Lamiaceae species is 2.5, which is characteristic for the floras of Boreal and Nemoral areas (2.1–3.8). However, the index ratio between Asteraceae and Cyperaceae is considerably higher (5.8) and is characteristic for the floras of the Boreal and Nemoral regions (0.6–1.8) approaching the floras of the Mediterranean floristic region (3.6–7.8). This phenomenon can be explained by the law percentage of Cyperaceae species in the flora of the National Park. This is due to the low number of habitats suitable for the representatives of family Cyperaceae.
We critically survey peculiar aspects of the distribution patterns, ecology, ontogenesis and reproduction, anatomical, morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetics traits which are presumed to ensure the exclusive adaptation of Deschampsia antarctica to the conditions of the Maritime Antarctic. We analyze the specific traits of the plant and their potential significance in the exclusive dispersal of D. antarctica in the region. We state that such specific adaptations are absent and propose that D. antarctica (just like other Maritime Antarctic vascular plant species, Colobanthus quitensis) has been developing a set of adaptive strategies supposedly since the initial colonization back in a climatically more favorable time. These adaptive strategies, albeit presumably governed by mechanisms universal to vascular plants, have still some peculiar features which ensure the advantage of D. antarctica over other species attempting to colonize the region.
Theoretical aspects of the change of vital parameters in time are considered. On the example of natural forest regrowth in Novgorod-Siversky Polissya it is shown that vitality characteristics (vitality of individuals, the ratio in the plant cohort of different vitality classes, the quality index) are very dynamic. The most frequent in the stages of this process is the change in vitality structure of plant cohorts represented in the populations of fo- rest-forming species and values of the quality index. It is proposed to use a special index, the index of vitality dynamics (IVD), to evaluate the extent and nature of changes in the index values of quality during a period of time and in the stages of ecological and coenotic processes.
Results of synanthropization valuation of forests of Romny-Poltava geobotanical district are indicated. The concise analysis of synanthropic fraction of the forest flora is carried out. The sharp difference between natural forest communities and artificial ones are shown. Pine forests (Vaccinio-Piceetea classis) have the least number of synanthropic plant species. Willow and poplar communities (Salicetea purpureae classis) are the mostly synanthropized on this territory.
Prospects of cultivation of Anacanptis morio (L.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon et M.W. Chase (Orchidaceae Juss.) in Ukraine are considered. Methods of aseptic breeding of A. morio were developed; conditions for the plant sterilization and cultivation in vitro as well as nutrient media were selected and vital plant material was produced. Parameters for growing A. morio under primary culture conditions were determined. Cultivation of A. morio is proposed for the ex situ conservation of the species.
The first finding of Astragalus calycinus M. Bieb. (Fabaceae) in Ukraine is reported. Coenotic conditions and major characteristics of the population are described. Protection of the locality is emphasized and listing of the species to the future edition of the Red Data Book of Ukraine is recommended.
The locality of North American Celastrus scandens L. (about 216 m2) is registered in the protected area Rizanyj Yar (Cherkasy region, Ukraine) at age-old oakery area. This species was registered before at the territory of Ukraine only under condiotions of cultivation. C. scandens is harmful to the separate representatives of the local flora and its distribution is restrained by its relative frost-resistancy and the ability only for vegetative propagation. C. scandens is usable for ornamental and medicinal purposes.
A new locality of Triglochin maritima L. in the Ukrainian Carpathians is reported. Cоenotic characteristics of the population habitat in the upper reaches of the White Cheremosh River (Chychvyny Mountains) are presented.
A self-pollinated orchid, Epipactis muelleri Godfery, is reported from the Crimea as a new species for the flora of Ukraine. Data on key diagnostic characters of the species and collected herbarium specimens are provided.
Data about new for the flora of Ukraine and rare, interesting in floristic, ecological and taxonomic aspects, green and streptophycean algae found in terrestrial habitats of Ukraine (Hormotilopsis gelatinosa Trainor et Bold, Deasonia multinucleata (Deason et H.C. Bold) H. Ettl et Komárek, Prasiococcus calcarius (J.B. Petersen) Vischer, Prasiolopsis ramosa Vischer, Klebsormidium bilatum Lokhorst, Klebsormidium sp.) are presented. Descriptions, figures, information about ecological peculiarities, distribution in Ukraine and worldwide, phylogenetic relationships etc. are provided.
The localities of 16 new and rare species of lichens for the Left-Bank part of Ukraine are cited. The species were collected from the cretaceous outcrops in the basin of the Siversky Donets River. Among them Arthonia calcarea (Turner ex Sm.) Ertz & Diederich, Caloplaca limonia Nimis & Poelt, C. phlogina (Ach.) Flagey, Catillaria lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr., Rinodina terrestris Tomin, Squamarina cartilaginea (With.) P. James, Thrombium epigaeum (Pers.) Wallr., Xanthoria mediterranea Giralt, Nimis & Poelt are reported for the first time for the Left-Bank part of Ukraine. New data on distribution of the red-listed lichen species, Leptogium schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl., Squamarina cartilaginea, Circinaria hispida (Mereschk.) A. Nordin, S. Savić & Tibell, are provided.
A list of epigeous gasteromycetes of the north-western part of the Black Sea Region collected during vegetation periods in 2008–2012 is reported. In total, 34 species of 13 genera, 4 families, 4 orders of the Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota, were recorded. Tulostoma americanum Lloyd is a newly recorded species for Ukraine. Locality descriptions, types of substrates, illustrations of the fruit bodies and original descriptions are provided; for the new records illustrations of macro- and microstructures are added. Ecological trophic characteristics and data practical use of gasteromycetes are presented.
В сентябре 2012 г. в двух локалитетах на территории Одесской обл. (46°0' N, 29°40' E и 46°25' N, 30°10' E) отмечено развитие ржавчинного гриба на Cyclachaena xanthiifolia. Последовательности субъединицы 28S ядерной рибосомальной ДНК подтвердили принадлежность ржавчинника на C. xanthiifolia к виду Puccinia helianthi. По-видимому, Украина является единственной, кроме США, страной, где P. helianthi зарегистрирована на C. Xanthiifolia.
New data on a rare species of lichenicolous fungi, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Linds.) Petrak & Sydow, found in Carpathian Biosphere Reserve and Shatsk National Nature Park are presented. The species description, data on distribution and cited herbarium specimens are given.
A spectrum of mitosis pathologies and chromosomal aberrations in the cells of root meristem of the Pinus pallasiana D. Don shoots from arboretum of the Krivoy Rog Botanical Garden and plantation on the iron-ore dump was studied. The general level of cytogenetic violations was as follows: 2.92 % – arboretum; 7.09 % – trees of active genesial age (30–35 years) on dump, 5.63 % – young trees entering reproductive age (7–12 years) on dump. In the seeds from arboretum, pathologies of mitosis prevailed while in the seeds of plants of the same age from dump the chromosomal abnormalities obviously dominated. In this industrial region of the steppe area in Ukraine, P. pallasiana is fully appropriate species for cytogenetic monitoring of environmental pollution.
The article devoted to the 150th anniversary of Academician V.I. Vernadsky’s birthday, provides a review of his activities and his links with Ukraine. It is emphasized that many statements of Vladimir Vernadsky become topical, such as global significance of vegetation and living matter, his biogeochemical principles, and the concept of the public status and professionalism of the Academy, relevance to develop a wide range of sciencies for progress. It is proposed an overview of functioning of the Comission for Study of Academician V.I. Vernadsky Heritage of the NAS Ukraine and development of Vernadsky’s ideas in Ukraine.
Ya.P. Didukh, Yu.A. Vashenyak
A new approach to the geobotanical zoning is discussed. Diagnostic habitats are identified as a basis for ecological and geobotanical zoning of the Central Podillya. Boundaries of Central Podilla, region and ecological districts are clarified. Ecological characteristics of ecological districts are made.
PALYNOMORPHOLOGY OF SPECIES OF OROBANCHE L. SUBGENUS OROBANCHE L. (OROBANCHACEAE) IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Pollen morphology of 18 species of the genus Orobanche L. subgenus Orobanche was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of the studied species are 2-, 3-rugate (seldom some grains 1-, 4-rugate) and inaperturate; prolate, spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal in shape; medium-sized, rarely small-sized. Five types of sculpture are identified: retirugulate, scabrate-verrucate, verrucate, verrucate-gemmate, and gemmate. Palynomorphological data confirm the placement of the studied taxa in subgen. Orobanche and provide evidence for recognition of sect. Inflatae as separate from sect. Orobanche. Pollen morphology is consistent with the phylogenetic split of the genus Orobanche s. l. into two clades, Phelipanche and Orobanche, which, depending on taxonomic decisions, can be treated as subgenera or segregate genera.
More advanced pollen characters are peculiar to the Orobanche clade as compared to those in the Phelipanche clade. Evolution of aperture types in the genus Orobanche s. l. proceded in a correlated and parallel manner with sculpture evolution: from the colporate type with retipilate sculpture to the colpate type with the same sculpture, and then to the rugate type with scabrate-verrucate and verrucate sculpture, and finally to the inaperturate type with gemmate sculpture.
The list including 29 species of the family Lamiaceae described from Ukraine (genera Phlomis L., Salvia L., Satureja L., Ziziphora L.), based on analyses of the protologues and type specimens, is presented. The basionym, main synonymy, nomenclatural type (protologue, holotype, lectotype, isotype, or neotype) and place of it's storage are given for each species.
Results of the systematic analysis of alien fraction of the Romensko-Poltavsky geobotanical district flora which includes 334 species from 206 genera and 61 families are presented. On the whole, the spectrum of leading families is similar to the Ancient Mediterranean flora. Proportions in comparison with other studied alien fractions of the flora in different parts of Ukraine are given.
The subgenus Rohrbachia was apparently formed in the Upper Cretaceous in the Indo-Malaysian province, as a result of the convergence with mangrove, undersized populations of the Pandanaceae family (Pandanus minor). The section Minimae was formed in the Paleogene while the Central Asian section Turanicae was formed in the Neogene. In the Upper Pleistocene, because of the isolation and desertification of the Khankhay Sea, the Mongolian-Gobi populations due to rapid geological and climatic changes were subjected to a sharp reduction and formed the section Mongolica. As a result of the study of the herbarium materials of T. minima Funсk at the Kholodhy Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (KW), Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (LE), a new species, Typha ephemeroida A. Krasnova, has been described.
Preservation ex situ of the seeds of Alyssum calycocarpum Rupr. (Brassicaceae) and Anthyllis biebersteiniana Popl. (Fabaceae), species endemic to the Crimean flora, has been studied using modern cryotechnique. The seeds survived after having been exposed to ultra low temperature (–196° C) during a month.
Results of comprehensive biomorphological research of two species of the genus Pulsatilla Mill. from the position of the modular organization of their shoot systems are presented. Various options for combinations of elementary modules in the universal module as well as their structural polyvariety are revealed.
PALEOCHOROLOGY OF SOME RARE SPECIES OF LYCOPHYTES AND FERNS IN THE SLOVECHNO-OVRUCH RIDGE AREA DURING THE 13th CENTURY
We considered the spore component of palynological characteristics for the Early Medieval deposits on the example of the model area (the Slovechnо-Ovruch Ridge) and the time range (13th century A.D.). The list of the vascular cryptogamic plants (10 species) has been identified. For the first time, schemes of distribution of 5 taxa (Diphasiastrum complanatum, Lycopodium annotinum, Lycopodiella inundata, Huperzia selago, Botrychium lunaria) in the Slovechno-Ovruch (Slovechansko-Ovruchsky) Ridge area in the 13th century were developed. These species are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine. The results of our paleochorological analysis showed that the decrease of habitats and ranges of Diphasiastrum complanatum and Huperzia selago was caused by human activity. We can also assume that extinction of Botrychium lunaria from the regional flora occurred as a result of human activity in the late Holocene (SA–3).
Juncus dichotomus is reported for the Ukrainian flora. This is an alien species of North American origin. Now in Ukraine Juncus dichotomus is known in Zhytomyr Region and Volyn Region. Diagnostic features and data on distribution of this species are presented.
THE NEW FINDS OF ALIEN PLANTS IN THE FLORA OF KHARKIV
Information about records of the following alien plants in the flora of Kharkіv is reported: Echinochloa tzvelevii Mosyakin ex Mavrodiev & H.Scholz (the third locality in Ukraine), Eragrostis suaveolens A. Becker ex Claus (new to the Left Bank Forest-Steppe), Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. subsp. densiflora (Turcz. ex Moq.) Aellen, K. scoparia (L.) Schrad. var. trichophylla (Voss) L.H. Bailey, Euphorbia marginata Pursh, Datura tatula L., Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fernald, Rudbeckia laciniata L., Heliopsis scabra Dunal, Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, I. hederacea (L.) Jacq., Rudbeckia hirta L., Reynoutria japonica Houtt., Cosmos bipinnatus Cav., and Phlox paniculata L.
A rare downy mildew, Peronospora verbenae on Verbena officinalis, is newly reported from Ukraine. The species recently described from Germany and recorded in the UK and Czech Republic is unknown outside Europe. Using SEM, additional ultrastructural features of the ultimate branchlets and conidiospore surface were discovered. Original illustrations of the revealed morphological characters are provided.
A study of nine populations of G. lutea from different habitats in the Ukrainian Carpathians was carried out. For all communities involving G. lutea, the presence of the same dominant species was shown, but in different proportions. All populations are normal complete, with the left-sided age spectrum. Significant portion of the age spectrum of populations, located in the conservation area, is formed by young generative individuals. Grazing, shading and sodding of the soil surface lead to the changes in the age structure thet consisted in the increase of the proportion of virgin plants or the predominance of vegetative origin plants. Among the investigated populations, six are young affluent (Lemska Polonyna, Sheshul and Pavlyk Mts., Pozhyzhevska Mt., Troyaska and Tataruka Mts., Petros Mt., Pip Ivan Mt.), two represent young balanced (Rohneska Polonyna and Krachuneska Polonyna), and the population on Vorozheska Mt. belongs to depressive ones.
Geographical distribution and current status of populations of a rare species of the Eurasian flora, Cypripedium calceolus L. (Orchidaceae), in Volhynian Upland (Volhynian, Rivne and Lviv Regions of Ukraine) are described. New localities of Cypripedium calceolus are reported. Habitats and age structure of the Cypripedium calceolus populations within Volhynian Upland are characterized. Recommendations for the enhancement of plant protection on the Volhynian Upland area are proposed.
Botrychium multifidum (S.G. Gmel.) Rupr. is a rare species included in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (2009). Due to analysis of the literature data, critical revision of the herbarium specimens and field studies of the authors, this species has been registered in Ukraine over 90 times. Botrychium multifidum is found to occur in 16 regions of Ukraine, e.g. Kyiv (15 localities), Lviv (14), Kharkiv (11), Zhytomyr and Chernihiv (9 localities in each), Ivano-Frankivsk and Sumy (7 localities in each), Volyn, Transcarpathian, Rivne and Chernivtsi (4 localities in each), Ternopil (2), Vinnitsa, Poltava, Kherson and Cherkasy (only one locality in each). The new localities of the species in Transcarpathian, Lviv, Kharkiv and Chernihiv Regions from herbarium materials (LWS, LE) as well as collections of the authors from Volyn Region are reported.
Data on authentic materials of two species of the genus Hieracium, H. dshurdshurense Üksip and H. laevimarginatum Sennikov, are given. Nomenclatural citations, information about the holotype and isotype deposited at the Herbarium YALT are provided.
Data on the V.V. Montresor collection of bryophytes of the 19th century from Ukraine in the Bryological Herbarium of the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, NAS of Ukraine (KW-B) is reported. It includes 32 specimens, some collected by A.S. Rogovich, L. Stadnicky and others. The authors re-identified a number of specimens and recorded some species not reported before.
I.I. Korshikov, Ye.V. Lapteva, Yu.A. Tkachоva
A quantitative and dimensional variation in nucleoli of the seedling root interphase cells of Pinus pallasiana D. Don has been studied. The seedlings were grown from seeds collected in the Crimean natural population and in the plantations on protected, technogenically contaminated, disturbed and urban areas in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The nuclear area in seedling cells of seeds from the plantations is found to be significantly smaller than in the cells of seeds from the control natural populations. Variability of the nucleoli number within the nucleus, of their total area and individual nucleoli areas was noted. There is a tendency towards the lower nucleus-nucleolus ratio in the seed cells from the technogenous areas.
The results of a study of genesis and cytoembryological features of Canna indica L. (Cannaceae, Zingiberales) ovule and female gametophyte are presented. C. indica ovule is crassinucellar, bitegmic, anatropous or anacampilotropous. Characteristic features of the ovule organization are the following: two layers of parietal cells at the initial development stages; formation of epistaze, hypostase, raphe, phachychalaza and funicular obturator. An embryo sac develops by the Polygonum-type. The revealed characters of C. indica ovule and embryo sac organization are compared with the literature data on the female generative morphology for species from families Musaceae, Zingiberaceae, Costaceae, Marantaceae, and Heliconiaceae of the order Zingiberales.
The Autospecies software has been developed to expedite error-proof typing of Latin names of plants. Autospecies is linked to reference information on species of the Ukrainian flora, over 9000 taxa with their synonyms. A special hot key provides quick replacement of the species abbreviation by its full Latin name with species author(s). While typing in Autospecies a non-accepted species name, a prompt suggesting the correct (accepted) name is popped up. Autospecies allows to speed up typing of Latin names without errors and to unify botanical nomenclature used by different botanists. The Autospecies software can be downloaded from http://phytobank.net