BIODIVERSITY: CONCEPTION, CULTURE, AND THE ROLE OF SCIENCE
In the article it is asserted that biodiversity has universal significance for the world community, since it forms for it and for a person all principal modi of its being, both the material and spiritual, including a view on the world. Therefore, its destruction amounted to the global scope in the end of the past century on the basis of feedback brought to globalization and degradation of the community. It was attained due to the use of scientific achievements by civilized countries. Thus, a degree of civilization should be defined not based on indicators of scientific achievements and limits of population growth, but on the basis of the biodiversity state and permissible limits of its withdrawal that provides the conservation of a dynamic biosphere balance.
GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF CARYOPHYLLACEAE JUSS. IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL AND CENOTIC CHARACTERIZATION
Results of a geographical analysis and ecological and cenotic characterization of species of Caryophyllaceae Juss. in the flora of Ukraine are reported. Based on an arealogical system of the regional type, 7 types, 22 classes, and 41 groups of geographical elements are identified. It allowed revealing the geographic specificity of species, their links and relations with the centers of diversity of the family. European — Ancient Mediterranean — Eurasian species dominate in the geographical structure of Caryophyllaceae taxa that occur in Ukraine.
THE VASCULAR FLORA OF BULGARIA: HISTORY OF STUDIES, STRUCTURES, AND PROBLEMS OF CONSERVATION
The paper presents a review of the studies on the Bulgarian flora, its systematic structure, patterns of the species' distribution, synanthropic floristic component, endemism, speciation centers, and the main problems related to the flora conservation. According to the current studies, the Bulgarian flora comprises 4000 species, 906 genera , and 153 families of vascular plants, and 719 species, 212 genera and 79 families of mosses. The highest species diversity is observed in the Rhodopes (2483 species), Stara P lanina (Balkan Mountains — 2372 spp.), the massifs of Pirin (2079 spp.) and Rila (2023 spp.). More than 600 species (14 % of the flora) are adventi ve (alien) species. The endemic element in the Bulgarian flora amounts to 515 species (12,9 %), including Bulgarian endemics — 194 species, and Balkan endemics — 321 species (8 %). Total 80 Bulgarian and 85 Balkan endemics occur in the Rhodopes. There are about 400 protected areas in Bulgaria, including three national parks and 17 biosphere reserves. The Red Data Book of Bulgaria (1984) includes 763 plant species (21 %). The Biodiversity Act of Bulgaria (2002) declared 589 species and subspecies (15,1 %) as protected. Also, 106 species (2,7 %) are listed in the IUCN Red List, 74 species — in CITES Convention, 54 species — in Bern Convention, and 11 species — in the Directive 92/43 of EEC. The future trends of studies of the Bulgarian flora are outlined and special attention is given to the conservation issues.
DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGICAL-COENOTIC PECULIARITIES OF CLADIUM MARISCUS (L.) POHL. IN LVIV REGION
Distribution of Cladium mariscus in Ukraine is analyzed, with a special emphasis on Lviv Region. Characterization of its habitats is presented, and a coenotic analysis provided. The modern status and perspectives of species conservation in the region are considered.
A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE ALIEN FLORA OF THE KIEV URBAN REGION
The results of a comparative analysis of the systematic (taxonomic) structure of the alien flora and the native flora of the Kiev urban region are presented. The main features of the alien flora are detected.
CAULINIA GRAMINEA (DELILE) TZVELEV (NAJADACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FOR THE UKRAINIAN FLORA
A new alien species for Ukraine, specific rice weed Caulinia graminea, was first found in the Crimea. An updated morphological description of the taxon is provided and its ecology is discussed.
FINDINGS OF POTENTILLA MOLLICRINIS (BORBAS) STANK. AND P. CALLIERI (TH. WOLF) JUZ. IN SOUTH OF DONETSK REGION
Potentilla mollicrinis and P. callieri are first reported for the flora of South of Donetsk Region. These two species, previously known in Ukraine only from Crimea, were found in Khomutovsky Steppe Reserve and its surroundings, so their ranges now include the North Azov coastal plain.
CAREX-SPHAGNUM BOGS WITHIN THE CHORNOHORA RIDGE (THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS): STRUCTURE AND TENDENCIES OF CHANGES
The article presents the results of our investigation of bogs which are formed when the lakes are growing over and in the outfalls of the mountain streams of the subalpine belt of the Chornohora Ridge (the Ukrainian Carpathians). The rare association of Carex rostrata—Sphagnum riparium is described for the first time for the Chornohora. On the basis of the results of our investigations and literary sources, we depicted the general scheme of successive changes of phytocoenoses, which begin with the appearance of Carex—Sphagnum cover, and gradually turn into meso- and oligotrophic bogs.
ECOLOGICAL AND COENOTIC PECULIARITIES OF POPULATIONS OF DAPHNE SOPHIA KALEN. IN THE NATIVE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Researches of four metapopulations of D. sophia in Ukraine established that the species is stenotopic, and its optimum is within the limits of cl. Rhamno-Prunetea. The population of the species near v. Bochkovo has an equilibrium age structure. By vitality structure, all investigated populations of plants in cl. Rhamno-Prunetea were equilibrium ones, and сl. Helianthemo-Thymetea — depressive ones. The ecological structure of a population corresponds to the T — strategy and relict activity. The index of integration is proposed, which considerably formalizes the process of vitality analysis. During the last 40 years the conservation mode in general had positive influence on numbers of Daphne plants. Constant monitoring of conditions of the investigated populations is needed. For proper preservation of this rare species we propose the following: cultivation of D. sophia in botanical gardens and transplanting young plants in potentially suitable habitats.
GROWTH AND BIOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY OF GRIFOLA FRONDOSA (DICKS: FR.) S.F. GRAY AND SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE FR. (BASIDIOMYCOTA) IN THE SUBMERGED CULTURE
The growth and biosynthetic activity of edible, medicinal mushrooms Grifola frondosa (Dicks: Fr.) S.F. Gray and Schizophyllum commune Fr. from the Collection of Fungal Cultures of the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany NASU (Kyiv) were investigated under submerged cultivation. The most favorable for the biomass production of the investigated strains were NH4NO3 and peptone as sources of nitrogen, and glucose as a source of carbon. Strains G. frondosa 332 and S. commune 1760 with high levels of biosynthetic activities were selected for following investigation as the biotechnological application. For biomass and exopolysaccharides production, nutritional complex mediums with peptone or molasses and with corn extract were selected for strains G. frondosa 332 and S. commune 1760, accordingly.
CULTIVATION OF WOOD-DESTROYING FUNGUS LAETIPORUS SULPHUREUS (BULL.: FR.) MURRILL (BASIDIOMYCOTA) ON LIQUID COMPLEX MEDIA
There were studied cultural and morphological peculiarities of 4 strains of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murrill in condition of submerged culture. Evaluation of potentialities of agricultural and processing industrial wastes using as components of complex media has shown prospects of using such additions as soybean, pea and corn flours, starch, and alder sawdust. Addition of soybean flour to the cultural medium of L. sulphureus was conductive for formation of filament mycelium and augmentation of biomass in submerged culture almost twice as compared to the same datum on the medium without additions. The drop of pH index from 6—7 to 2.2—2.3 has taken place in the process of cultivation of L. sulphureus despite of the medium and additions.
ASSESSMENT OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE CITY OF POLTAVA USING EPIPHYTIC LICHENS
Results of lichen indication of air pollution in the city of Poltava (Ukraine) and of mapping on the basis of atmosphere purity index (IAP) are presented. Four isotoxic lichen zones are identified4 they coincide with the areas of distribution of species with similar sensitivity to air pollution. It is established that the territory of Poltava is moderately polluted.
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE COMBINED MAGNETIC FIELD ON A LEPIDIUM SATIVUM L. ROOT GRAVITROPIC REACTION
Primary roots exhibit positive gravitropism and grow in the direction of the gravitational vector, while shoots grow opposite to the gravitational vector. We first demonstrated that a weak combined magnetic field (CMF), which is comprised of a permanent magnetic field and an alternating magnetic field with the frequency resonance to the cyclotron frequency of calcium ions, can change the direction of root gravitropism. Two-day-old Lepidium sativum L. (Brassicaceae Burnett) seedlings were gravistimulated in a chamber that was placed into м-metal shield where such CMF has been created. Using this "new model" of a root gravitropic reaction, we have studied some of its components, including the movement of amyloplasts-statoliths in root cap statocytes and Ca2+ ion distribution in the distal elongation zone during gravistimulation. In the CMF unlike control, amyloplasts did not sediment in the distal part of a statocyte, and more Сa2+ accumulation was observed in the upper side of a gravistimulated root. A root gravitropic reaction occurs by a normal physiological process resulting in root bending in the CMF although in the opposite direction. These results support the participation of amyloplasts-statoliths and calcium ions in plant gravitropism.
Ya.P. Didukh, J.Yu. Gaiova
SYNPHYTOINDICATION ANALYS OF PLANT COMMUNITIES OF THE CHERKASY-CHYHYRYN GEOBOTANICAL DISTRICT
Quantitative assessment of ecological factors for Cherkasy-Chyhyryn geobotanical district on the base of phytoindication and ordination methods is provided. These factors determine spatial distribution of vegetation in the district, as well as its biotope humidity and fertility of soils, nutrients and organic matter cycles, and energy transformation.
MIRES OF THE BUKOVINIAN CARPATHIANS
Data on mires of the Bukovinian Carpathians are presented. Most of them are eutrophic, with mesotrophic and oligotrophic mires occurring rarely. Among 4 geomorphological types of Carpathian mires, only mires of depressions of the subalpine belt are absent. Mires of depression of the forest belt are very peculiar: they are located in a complex with slope mires, belong to the eutrophic type, and are coenostically and floristically unique. Slope mires are most widespread. The presence of communities dominated by Juncus inflexus and green mosses is their specific feature. The same communities are characteristic for the mires of depressions. The mire on the Chornyi Dil Range is unique in many respects. It is a calcareous fen of the Central European type with plant communities and species which are absent in other regions of the Ukrainian Carpathians: Ligularia sibirica (L.) Cass, Swertia perennis L., and Pinguicula alpina L.
ECO- CENOTIC PECULIARITIES OF FRAGMENTED POPULATIONS OF CAREX STRIGOSA HUDS. (CYPERACEAE) IN TRANSCARPATHIA
During 2003-2005 investigations on the territory of riverine forests of the Transcarpathian Lowland we discovered Carex strigosa Huds. (Cyperaceae Juss.), a new species for the flora of this region. New data on distribution of this species are provided and eco-cenotic peculiarities of its habitats located in the eastern limit of its range are discussed. Communities with C. strigosa belong to association Fraxino pannonicae-Ulmetum So у in Asz у d 1935 corr. So у 1963, of Querco-Fagetea Br—Bl. et Vlieg. in Vlieg. 1937 class, which is newly reported for vegetation of Ukraine. General results on characteristics of populations are presented, and causes of their insularization are identified. The relict status of C. strigosa in Transcarpathia is determined, and the sozological (conservational) status of the species is defined. Conclusion is made regarding establishing a national nature park on the territory of riverine forests of the Transcarpathian Lowland, with the purpose of preserving unique vegetation complexes of this region.
ECOLOGICAL - CENOTIC PECULIARITIES OF SPECIES OF CYPERACEAE JUSS. IN EAST POLISSA
An analysis of phytocenotic peculiarities of 75 species of family Cyperaceae in East Polissa (northeastern Ukraine) was carried out. Species of this family prevail quantitatively and occur frequently in communities of class Phragmiti-Magnocaricetea Klika in Klika et Novak 1941. Peatmoss-sedgy and woody bogs (in the whole territory of East Polissa), slightly saline (mainly in Chernihiv Polissa) and steppose (mainly in Nerussa-Desna Polissa) meadows are the centers of localization of species of the family, which are rare in the region.
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF EUPHRASIA L. SPECIES ( OROBANCHACEAE VENT.) IN UKRAINE.
Chorology of 21 species of Euphrasia in the Ukrainian flora is analyzed and generalized. The ranges of each species and descriptions of geographical distribution in Ukraine are provided. The southern border of the "curcumpolar ring" of the total generic range is detalized and outlined.
COMMUNITIES OF CHARAPHYTES IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN PART OF LAKE SVITYAZ (VOLYN POLISSIA)
Six associations belonging to the class Charetea fragilis Fukarek ex Krausch 1964 have been recorded in Ukraine for the first time. Communities of the association Charetum asperae are widely distributed in the south-western part of Lake Svityaz at depths 0.1 — 3.0 m, but the association Nitelletum syncarpae was also found. Communities of associations Charetum contrariae, Charetum delicatulae, Charetum fragilis are registered at depths of 1 — 7 m, Lychnothamnetum barbati — 7 — 10 m. Lychnothamnus barbatus (Meyen) Leonh. is one of the rarest plant species that has been recorded in Ukraine for the first time. The associations Charetum delicatulae, Lychnothamnetum barbati and Nitelletum syncarpae are proposed to add to the new edition of the Green Data Book of Ukraine.
NEW AND RARE FOR UKRAINE SPECIES OF LICHENS FROM THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE STEPPE ZONE
Information about locations and ecology of ten new for Ukraine species of lichens from the southern part of the steppe zone are provided (Acrocordia cavata (Ach.) R.C. Harris in Vмzda, Сaloplaca dichroa Arup, C. polycarpoides (J. Steiner) M. Steiner & J. Poelt, C. raesaenenii Bredk., Collema coccophorum Tuck., Placidiopsis cinerascens (Nyl.) O. Breuss, Rinodina mucronatula H. Magn., and rare: C. flavocitrina (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Staurothele ambrosiana (Massal.) Zsch., Thelidium bryoctonum Th. Fr.). The lectotype of C. raesaenenii Bredk. (syn. C. thuringiaca Sшсhting & Strodeur) is selected.
DEVELOPMENT BIOLOGY OF VISCUM ALBUM L. AND ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF IT SPREADING IN FOREST AND PARK BIOCENOSES
Development (ontogenesis), dynamics of spreading and infectious, pathogenesis and symptomatic of trees infected by the hemiparasite species Viscum album L. are considered. The role of V. album as an undesirable plant in urban landscapes is shown; it lowers grow energy, productivity of trees and ornamental values of parks. Besides, Viscum album is valuable medicinal herb and necessary chain of trophic links of some birds. It is shown that the system approach is needed for working out control methods of hemiparasite spreading from the point of view of preserving the ecological balance in urban landscapes.
PECULIARITIES OF THE MALE GENERATIVE SPHERE IN PAEONIA TENUIFOLIA L.
Results of investigations of male gametophytes formation in Paeonia tenuifolia under natural growth conditions are discussed in the article. Embryological characters typical for P. tenuifolia and distinguishing it from other species of the genus Paeonia L. are identified. The normal process of pollen formation and its deviations are described.
THEORETICAL AND DEBATABLE ISSUES OF MODERN BOTANY IN UKRAINE
In the article the author asserts that most Ukrainian botanists whom the author know, at best, successfully comment on theoretical scientific ideas, hypotheses or concepts of their colleagues; they are inclined to empiricism, and have little success in analyzing and creating original ideas, do not pursue theoretical generalizations, and follow the well known ways which become less fruitful, more and more monotonous, not original ones. In their works we seldom see the fresh living ideas, interesting hypotheses, new approaches, willingness to develop profound concepts on the complicated issues, laws of existence and development of the phytobiota and its components.
In opinion of the author, the academic botanical institutions and botanical faculties of classical universities almost abandoned recently developing issues of theoretical botany; there is little or no public discussion on topical and debatable issues or scientific ideas. At the same time, without open discussions, without «brainstorming», it is difficult to solve the most important and urgent theoretical and methodological issues of modern botany.
In the article the author provides an overview of his discussion with authors of publications in the Ukrainian Botanical Journal, devoted to concepts of the national Green Data Book and the new Flora of Ukraine.
STATE OF VEGETATION AS THE PRINCIPAL PROBLEM OF THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY
It is asserted that at the present stage of globalization of all main modes of activity of the world community the crucial role for the future of humankind belongs to vegetation because it destruction approaches the critical point. Hence, at the first time the biosphere balance was upset, which became threaten humanity with global environmental, political, economic and other crises. Solution of this global problem is seen in implementation of the concept of vegetation conservation at areas that ensure the biosphere balance.
CHANGES IN PARTICIPATION OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIC GROUPS IN MOLINIO-ARRHENATHERETEA R. TX. 1937 CLASS COMMUNITIES DEPENDING ON ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSURE INTENSIFICATION
On the base of the destruction index of phytocenosis, we studied changes of main economic groups (grasses/graminoids, legumes/pulses, sedge & rush, motley grass) participation in coenofloras of alliances within the Molinio-Arrhenatheretea R. Tx. 1937 class. It was determined an absence of any clear correlation between participation of the graminoid group and phytocenosis transformation degree. The quota of legumes along of the digression gradient was increased in all model syntaxa. Also, in all investigated syntaxa it was observed decreasing of participation of the sedge & rush group along the digression gradient. The quota of the motley grass group under increasing of phytocenosis disturbance in most cases fluctuates with several optimums and pessimums. At the same time, on intermediate stages of digression in the Galietalia veri and Molinietalia orders coenofloras it was observed some reduction of this group species quota, but in Arrhenatheretalia order coenoflora, quite the contrary, increasing. Our investigation allowed to considered the legumes group, also sedge & rush group as perspective indicators for assessing the state of plant communities.
ASSOTIATION GERANIO - TRIFOLIETUM ALPESTRIS TH. MЬLLER 1962 IN EASTERN POLISSYA
The paper provides data on the floristic composition, coenotic structure, syntaxonomy, and peculiarities of geographical distribution of the species-reach forest-margin communities in Eastern Polissya. These communities belong to the association Geranio-Trifolietum alpestris Th. Mьller 1962 (class Trifolio-Geranietea Th. Mьller 1962). Some species in need of protection at the national and regional levels occur in such coenoses.
FLORA AND VEGETATION OF THE PERSPECTIVE CHORNOLISKO-DMYTRIVSKY NATIONAL NATURE PARK
The results of studies of the vegetation and flora of Chorny Lis and Chuta forests are reported. The vegetation is represented mainly by broadleaf forests. Main syntaxa are characterized. High floristic and coenotic values of these areas are emphasized. 12 species of vascular plants listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine, 13 species from the regional Red List, and 6 syntaxa from the Green Data Book of Ukraine. There are about 3.5 thousand ha of protected areas in Chorny Lis. Chuta Forest has no protected areas. Establishment of the Chornolisko-Dmytrivsky National Nature Park is planned on the basis of these two forest areas.
ERIGERON ATTICUS VILL. (ASTERACEAE) IN THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS
A locality of Erigeron atticus on the rocks of Dantsyr Mt. in the Chornohora Range is confirmed. The species has not been reported in the main Ukrainian floristic compendia. Exact location and coenotic conditions of the locality are presented. The taxonomic position and morphological characters of E. atticus are analyzed and population parameters described. The population is extremely low-numbered and declining. The species should be included into the new edition of the Red Data Book of Ukraine as critically endangered (CR).
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY PECULIARITIES OF SPECIES OF TRIBE CORONILLEAE (ADANS.) BOISS.
The tribe Coronilleae is heteromorphic according to its palynomorphological characteristics. The practicability of transferring Coronilla varia, C. cretica, C. parviflora to the genus Securigera, аnd C. emeroides, C. emerus — to the genus Hippocrepis has been confirmed. The essential differences in the ora shape and structure of the pollen cover were revealed in morphologically similar C. varia and C. elegans. Representatives of Scorpiurus and Ornithopus are more distant from the rest of genera and are strongly distinguished in their pollen cover.
RECORDS OF NEW FOR UKRAINE AND NOTEWORTHY TAXA OF ALGAE FROM AZOVO-SYVASHSKY NATIONAL NATURE PARK
The article presents data on the records of algae new and rare for Ukraine: Cyanobium bacillare (Butcher) Komбrek et al., Synechococcus salinarum Komбrek, Chroococcus submarinus (Hansgirg) Kovбиik, Jaaginema borodinii (Voronichin) Anagnostidis et Komбrek, Leptolyngbya saxicola (Gardner) Anagnostidis et Komбrek, Oscillatoria subbrevis Schmidle, Anabaena caspica Ostenf., Radiosphaera negevensis var. minor Ocampo-Paus et Friedmann, Chlorosarcinopsis arenicola Groover & Bold, Leptosira erumpens (Deason & Bold) Lukeshova, Dilabifilum arthropyreniae (Vischer&Klement) Tschermak-Woess, Pseudendoclonium printzii (Vischer) Bourrelly, Gloeobotrys sp., and Capitulariella radians Pascher. All of them were discovered in terrestrial hyperhaline habitats of Azovo-Syvashsky National Nature Park. Their descriptions with original illustrations are given, as well as information concerning their ecological peculiarities and distribution in Ukraine and in the world.
EPIPHYTIC LICHENS OF THE DONETSK RIDGE AS INDICATORS OF tHE STATE OF ENVIRONMENT
A list of 80 epiphytic lichens of the Donetsk Ridge is provided. Species diversity of epiphytic lichens of the investigated region is more similar to lichen biotas of other Steppe areas than to lichen biotas of Forest-Steppe areas. The state of some epiphytic lichens within the studied area is assessed and recommendations on their protection are discussed. Data on applying of epiphytic lichens as indicators of the ecological continuity of forest massifs of Europe are reviewed and problems of similar investigations in the Steppe areas are discussed. Epiphytic lichens considered as indicators of the environmental state in the Donetsk Ridge are selected. Switching of substrate by some epilithic lichens to bark of trees as consequence of dust pollution are discussed. The less anthropogenically altered forest massifs in the Donetsk Ridge are found to be present in "Sviati Gory" National Nature park, "Donetskij Kriazh" Regional landscape park, "Perlyna Perevalshyny" Projected Botanical Zakaznyk, and Grabove protected area.
TYPES OF EPIPHYTIC LICHENS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN THE URBAN AREA OF KYIV CITY
Peculiarities of distribution of epiphytic lichens in the urban area of Kyiv city were investigated. On the basis of original investigations, five types of species were evaluated: urbanophobic (urbanophobous), moderately urbanophobic, urbanoneutral, moderately urbanophilic, and urbanophilic (urbanophilous). It was established that moderately urbanophilic lichens have the highest frequency (71 —100 %) in the survey area. At the same time, most species are urbanoneutral and moderately urbanophobic.
THE ROLE OF SIGNAL SYSTEMS AND PHYTOHORMONES IN THE REALIZATION OF STRESS RESPONSE IN PLANTS
Data on participation of intermediates of signal systems and some stress metabolites in regulation of plant cells functional activities under stress conditions are generalized. The main emphasis is made on calcium ions and reactive oxygen forms as possible key messengers of the unique cellular signal network. The interplay of systems of signal transduction and hormonal regulation is considered. Protective-regulatory functions of stress proteins, soluble carbohydrates, free amino acids and polyamines are estimated.
ETHYLENE EMISSION IN MAIZE INTERNODES (Zea mays L.) DURING STEM GROWTH
An intensity of ethylene emission in growing maize stem internodes was studied. The most intensive ethylene biosynthesis in maize internodes was revealed during early stages of development (5 leaves) and least intensive — during older stages (flowering of panicle). Thus, during maize development a high level of ethylene accumulation is typical for rapidly growing top internodes. Ethylene accumulation is considerably lower in lower internodes.
MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF PICEA PUNGENS "GLAUCA" UNDER URBOECOSYSTEM CONDITIONS (A CASE STUDY OF CHERNIVTSI)
Morphological, anatomical and physiological peculiarities of Рicea pungens under conditions of anthropic influence are considered. Decreasing of linear dimensions and increasing of the amount of chlorophyll a are proposed for using in biotesting of air pollution.
GENETIC HETEROGENEITY OF THE RARE ENDEMIC SPECIES UNGERNIA VICTORIS (AMARYLLIDACEAE): RAPD ANALYSIS
Studies on genetic heterogeneity of the valuable medicinal plant endemic to the Pamiro-Alai Mountains, Ungernia victoris Vved. ex Artjushenko (Amaryllidaceae) have been carried out. Six plants derived from a natural population located at the southern slope of the Gissar Ridge (Tajikistan) were assayed though RAPD-PCR. Total of 288 amplified bands were scored from 24 RAPD primers. Major populational and genetic parameters were measured: the percentage of polymorphic loci was 72.6 %, the effective number of alleles per locus (Ae) — 1.453 ± 0.355; Nei's gene diversity (expected heterozygosity He) — 0.267 ± 0.186; Shannon's index (s) — 0.399 ± 0.264. Average genetic distances according to Nei (DN) was 39.8 %. Bulbs arising from the same stem as a result of vegetative propagation failed to display any differences. High level of variability is suggested to reflect the peculiarities of the species, which is a long-lived perennial distinguished by preferential propagation through apomixis, long reproductive period, and high seed dispersal capacity.
EUPHRASIA HIRTELLA JORD. ex REUT. (OROBАNCHACEAE) IN UKRAINE
As a result of critical analysis of herbarium specimens in KW and CHER herbaria, specimens of E. hirtella collected in Lviv and Khmelnitsky regions have been revealed. Previous reports of this species for the territory of Ukraine have been proved to be erroneous. A morphological description and general range of the species are provided.
EXSICCATA AND THEIR ROLE IN HERBARIUM EXCHANGE
Unlike the museums, one of their main functions of herbaria is exchange of materials for updating and enriching collections. Traditions and rules of herbarium exchange were generated during several centuries. In their time exsiccates (exsiccata) played a significant role in this process as «standard samples», but in the course of time they have lost such value. Among the well-known exsiccates, the Ukrainian editions are not numerous: «Flora Odessana exsiccata», «Flora pr. Carcowiensis exsiccata», «Herbarium florae Ucrainicae exsiccates». The present publication reviews issues of design, publishing, and distribution of exsiccates with an emphasis on examples of Ukraine and Ukrainian herbarium collections. The characterization of published Ukrainian exsiccates is provided.
THE HERBARIUM OF THE O.V. FOMIN BOTANICAL GARDEN OF NATIONAL TARAS SCHEVCHENKO UNIVERSITY OF KYIV
A unique historical herbarium was found in the O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden of National Taras Schevchenko University of Kyiv. Preliminary data about the herbarium collections and the first results of their assessment are reported in article.
SYNTAXONOMIC POSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE CLASS BOLBOSCHOENETEA MARITIMI VICHEREK ET R. TX. 1969 IN THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA REGION
Syntaxonomic position and structure of the class Bolboschoenetea maritimi in the Northern Black Sea Region were identified. As a result of structur al -comparative analysis of coenotic floras of the classes Bolboschoenetea maritimi and Phragmito-Magnocaricetea, a conclusion is made that it is an independent syntaxonomic unit of the highest rank.
THE LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES of DISTRIBUTION OF RARE PLANT COMMUNITIES IN THE SOIL PITS OF THE POKUTTIA AND DNISTER FOREST- STEPPE
Regularities of distribution and processes of formation of unique plant communities in the karst pits of the Pokuttia and Dnister Forest-Steppe are considered in the article. We revealed landscape and ecological peculiarities of distribution of plant communities in the karst pits, forming peculiar complexes. South-facing slopes are occupied by communities Asplenion ruta-murariae, Alysso-Sedetalia,Artemisio marschallianii-Elytrigion intermediae, north, west and east-facing ones — by Cirsio-Brachypodion, Arrhenatheretalia, and bottoms of karst pits are occupied by communities of the classes Galio-Urticеtеa, Urtico-Sambucetea, and others.
BIOMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RARE PLANTS IN THE FLORA OF THE NATIONAL NATURE PARK «SYNEVYR»
The results of the study of the biomorphological, sozological and geographical peculiarities of 94 rare species in the flora of the National Natur e Park «Synevyr». Beside new data on life forms, we revealed the presence in this flora of 9 rare species previously not reported in this region and the Gorgans as a whole. Two of them (Coeloglossum alpinum Schur and Phyteuma confusum A. Kerner) were unknown within the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians and Ukraine.
COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLLEN GRAINS OF SPECIES OF PINGUICULA L. AND UTRICULARIA L. IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
The article presents results of palynomorphological studies (LM and SEM microscopy) of representatives of the genera Utricularia and Pinguicula occurring in Ukraine. Detailed palynomorphological characteristics of Pinguicula alpina and P. vulgaris are provided for the first time. Based of our comparative analysis, pollen grains of the studied representatives of the genera differ in the type of apertures and mesocolpium surface sculpture. Pollen morphology characters proved to be rather reliable and useful for taxonomy of Utricularia and Pinguicula. The obtained data can be used for elucidating various aspects of taxonomy and phylogeny of Lentibulariaceae and related families of the order Scrophulariales (Lamiales sensu lato). Data on occurrence of pollen grains of Utricularia in pollen and spore spectra of the Holocene deposits of Ukraine are analyzed and generalized for the first time. For identification of fossil pollen of Utricularia and Pinguicula, the diagnostic characters are the size, number and structural features of colpi, endoaperture outlines, and mesocolpium and apocolpium surface sculpture.
FINDS OF NEW LOCALITIES OF ALIEN PLANTS ARTEMISIA ARGYI LEVEILLIE ET VANIOT AND HERACLEUM SOSNOVSKYI MANDEN. NEAR KYIV WATER BODIES
Artemisia argyi is reported near Syne Lake in the Vynogradar residential area (northwestern part of right-bank Kyiv). It is the second locality of the species in Kyiv. A population of Heracleum sosnovskyi is revealed near Kitaevsky ponds in the southern part of Kyiv. Descriptions of plants and their habitats are provided.
FLORISTIC RICHNESS, DIVERSITY, AND TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE FLORA OF THE YELANETSKO-INGULSKY REGION
The floristic list consists of 923 species belonging to 418 genera, 103 families аnd 4 divisions of vascular plants. The native fraction of the flora includes 733 species of 333 genera and 88 families, the adventive fraction includes 190 species of 139 genera and 51 families. Angiosperm play the most important role in the flora (98.8 %), vascular cryptogamic plants and gymnosperms plants constitute only 1.2 % of the total species list. Floristic proportions are as follows: (s/g) — 3.8, (s/f) — 8.3, (g/f) — 2.2. The flora has a considerable diversity of species and is a typical steppe flora for the Black Sea Province of the Eurasian steppe region.
BIOMORPHOLOGY AND POPULATIONAL PECULIARITIES OF DIANTHUS HYPANICUS ANDRZ. IN THE KODYMO-ELANETSKY BUG REGION
Peculiarities of life forms, ontomorphogenetic, and issues of population demography and conservation of the rare, endemic and relict species Dianthus hypanicus Andrz. are considered.
Results of comparative assessment of air pollution in Kyiv city using epiphytic lichens are presented. Six indices were calculated. It was established that indices using a quantitative estimate of cover or/and abundance parameters did not show a high correlation with instrumental data. Thus, we recommend carrying out mapping of air pollution in Kyiv based on the lichen diversity index. Furthermore, it was established that Kyiv city is more polluted than other cities of Ukraine, where lichen indication was carried out. Air pollution is caused by factories (especially power and construction industries) and traffic exhaust. The essential distinctions of air quality in different areas of Kyiv are caused by the different location and specialization of industrial enterprises, main roads positions, and the directions of prevailing winds.
FUNGIf OF THE RED DATA BOOK OF UKRAINE FROM THE NATIONAL NATURE PARK «GOMILSHANSKI LISY»
As a result of long-term mycobiota surveys in the National Nature Park «Gomilshanski lisy» (Zmiyiv area, Kharkiv district, Ukraine), six species of fungi listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine were registered: Boletus aereus Bull., Clavariadelphus pistillaris (L.) Donk, Hericium coralloides (Scop.) Pers., Mutinus caninus (Huds.) Fr., Myriostoma coliforme (Dicks.) Corda, and Polyporus umbellatus (Pers.) Fr. Information about localities of these species is provided.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GANODERMA APPLANATUM (Pers.: Wallr.) Pat. а ND G. LUCIDUM (Curt.: Fr.) P. KarsT. strains IN THE submergeD CONDITIONS Antimicrobial activity of G. applanatum (13 strains) and G. lucidum (27 strains) tested in the samples of culture liquid with biomass and in their extracts on test-cultures. Antifungal activity of all investigated strains against A. niger in the samples of culture liquid and in their extracts has not been found. Antibacterial activity was determined only in extracts of 6 strains of G. applanatum and of 8 strains of G. lucidum. Antimicrobial activity against meticillin-sensitive S. aureus (resistant to 0.125 mkg/ml oxacillin), meticillin-resistant S. aureus (resistant to 32 mkg/ml oxacillin) and B. subtilis was demonstrated for strains of G. applanatum 1552 and G. lucidum 1908.
WATER INFLOW AS A FACTOR OF CELL ELONGATION
Cell elongation is an unseparable component of plant growth because it provides rapid extension of all organs in length and size leading to successful plant contacts with the sources of light, water and mineral elements; in parallel, it modifies plant morphogenesis. The development of cell competence to elongation occurs during the cell life span in the meristem, and cell transition to elongation starts rapidly. In competent cells, water is a trigger of cell elongation. Water inflow maintains an active metabolism in elongating cells, results in vacuole, an osmotic compartment, enlargement and produces turgor pressure on loosened cell walls, that in concert provides cell elongation. Water entrance is driven by the osmotic forces and is limited by the osmotic permeability of the plasmalemma, but not of the tonoplast, in which the osmotic permeability for water is much higher. In elongating cells, water inflow through both membranes occurs not only by diffusion through the lipid bilayer, but through water channels made by aquaporins too. The content of aquaporins in elongating cells increases. As a result of cell elongation, the enlarged vacuole moves protoplasm aside to cell periphery that results in a much higher ratio of cell surface to protoplasm volume, and favors an active exchange of various compounds with external medium and reception of numerous signals. The trigger role of water in initiation of cell elongation in germinating seeds is considered.
ROLE OF PHOSPHOLIPASE C IN ABA REGULATION OF STOMATA FUNCTION
We used neomycin, a PI-PLC inhibitor, to investigate the contribution of PI-PLC to ABA signaling in guard cell of epidermal pea leaves strips. ABA promotes closing of open stomata and inhibits the light-induced opening of closed stomata. The aperture size of stomata epidermal peels treated with ABA combined with neomycin was increased compared to the control level. Exogenously added neomycin induced stomata opening, reduced stomata closing by ABA, and inhibited ABA ability to suppress stomata opening. Pretreatment by neomycin impair increased stomata sensitiveness to the ABA signal. Furthermore, guard cells of epidermis treated by ABA were not sensitive to neomycin. The above-mentioned results may indicate that PI-PLC plays a role in the signaling events associated with the inhibition of stomata opening by ABA and cellular reactions that are responsible for ABA-induced stomata closure.
A.G. Bezusko, Yu.V. Grechishkina, S.L. Mosyakin, L.G. Bezusko
PALAEOBOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE LATE GLACIAL AND HOLOCENE DEPOSITS OF KYIV REGION
The article is dedicated to the history of palaeobotanical science in Ukraine in XX and at the beginning of the XXI century. On an example of Kyiv region the basic periods of palynological investigations of the Late Glacial and Holocene deposits are analyzed on the level of relative and absolute chronology. First for this region the results of the critical analysis of palaeopalynological and palaeoethnobotanical investigations are presented. It is concluded that the Obukhiv district is the best studied from the palaeobotanical point of view. On the grounds of generalized data the immediate tasks for the future palaeobotanical, palaeoclimate, and methodological investigations in Kyiv region are defined.
SPECIES RICHNESS OF BROAD-LEAVED FORESTS IN UKRAINE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH EDAPHIC AND CLIMATIC FACTORS
Data on species richness (number of vascular plants species per 500 m2) of the Fagetalia sylvaticae and Quercetalia pubescentis forests on 38 territories of Ukraine are presented. Dependencies of richness on edaphic factors (evaluated using phytoindication method) and climatic factors (data from climatic maps) are shown. The highest richness is charecteristic to podolian Fagetalia forests (36 species) and to Quercetalia pubescentis forests of all regions. The lowest species richness is in the Carpathians — 21 species. High richenss of the podolian forests is a result of combining rather humid climate with nutrient rich loess soil-forming deposits. Species richness of synusiae is shown. Homotonity of forests (mean Sorensen similarity coefficient for a territorial group of releves) has its maximum in the forest-steppe region (58%). Homotonity in the broadleaved region is lower (47%) because of more diverse soil conditions. In the steppe region, homotonity is low (48%) owing to extreme climatic conditions which result in substitution of forest species with ruderal and steppe species in a big part of releves.
GEOBOTANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE SEIM RIVER MEADOWS
The meadow vegetation of the flood-plain of the Seim river is divided into five classes of formations: steppe meadows (10%), true (45—55%), swamp (25—30%), peat (10—15%) and rough meadow (1%) ones. Physi с ogeographic characteristic of the Seim river inferior vаllеу, ecological and phytocenological characteristics of each formаtіоn and distribution of the formations within the river valley а rеpresented.
RARE SPECIES OF VASCULAR OF UKRAINIAN POLISSIA
Rare species of vascular plants of Ukrainian Polissia are characterized. They are divided into 4 groups: 1) species of international protection; 2) species of national protection; 3) species rare in Ukrainian Polissia; 4) species protected in administrative regions of Ukraine. A list of species for regional conservation in Ukrainian Polissia is proposed.
THE SEEDS MORPHOLOGY OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE TRIBE CORONILLEAE (ADANS.) BOISS. IN THE UKRAINIAN FLORA
The article is devoted to morphological investigations of seeds of representatives of tribes Coronilleae (Adans.) Boiss. of the Ukrainian flora. The diagnostic features оf seeds for the genera Hippocrepis, Scorpiurus, Securigera and Ornithopus were determined. They are the shape and symmetry of seeds, and the place of hilum arrangement. The diagnostic features for species of the genera are the color and morphometrical parameters of seeds. The results of investigations reveal heterogeneity of the genus Coronillа s.l. The seeds of Coronilla emeroides and C. emerus are characterized by similar forms. Original photographs of seeds of 15 species of the tribe are presented.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GYNOECIUM MORPHOLOGY AND VASCULAR ANATOMY IN THE FAMILY LYTHRACEAE
The peculiarities of comparative morphology and vascular anatomy of the gynoecium of Lagerstroemia indica, Lythrum salicaria and Cuphea purpurea were studied. The gynoecium of the studied species consists of a fertile synascidiate zone (1/2 till 4/5 ovary height), mainly sterile symplicate zone with apical septa (Cuphea purpurea); the apocarpous zone is absent. Ovule innervation is realized from bundles of the ovarian central column. Ventral bundles in Lagerstroemia indica continue into the style. There were established 10 morphological and 11 vascular-anatomical characters that may be used in the infrafamiliar systematics.
SCHISTIDIUM SUBMUTICUM BROTH. EX H.H. BLOM — A NEW SPECIES FOR THE BRYOPHYTE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Schistidium submuticum Broth. ex H.H. Blom (Grimmiaceae, Bryophyta) is reported for the first time for Ukraine. It was found on a concrete bridge near the town of Kalynivka, Vinnytsya Region, the Prydniprovs'ka Upland. Peculiarities of morphology, ecology and distribution of the species are discussed.
NEW RECORDS OF COPROPHILOUS ASCOMYCETES IN UKRAINE. I. PYRENOMYCETES AND LOCULOASCOMYCETES
Eight species of coprophilous pyrenomycetes and loculoascomycetes new for Ukraine are recorded in 2004—2005 in Novgorod-Sivers'k Polissia (Chernigov and Sumy regions). Sporormiella australis (Speg.) S.I. Ahmed et Cain, S. minimoides S.I. Ahmed et Cain, S. vexans (Auersw.) S.I. Ahmed et Cain, and Trichodelitschia bisporula (P. Crouan et H. Crouan) Munk belong to the order Pleosporales, Coniochaeta scatigena (Berk. et Broome) Cain, Podospora setosa (G. Winter) Niessl, Schizothecium aloides (Fuckel) N. Lundq., and Sch. vesticola (Berk. et Broome) N. Lundq. are representatives of the order Sordariales. Descriptions, illustrations, synonyms and localities in Ukraine are provided for each taxon. Characters of their morphology and general distribution are discussed.
LIGHT REGULATION OF GROWTH AND BIOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM IN PURE CULTURE
Mycelial sensitivity of the medicinal higher basidiomycete mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Kurt.: Fr.) P. Karst. to light flows of different spectral quality, geometry and polarization has been determined. The mushroom culture showed the greatest sensitivity to blue and red light. Light processing of the inoculum allowed lowering its quantity and reducing the duration of the fermentation process. The influence of irradiation on polysaccharides synthesis, carbohydrate composition of exopolisaccharides of G. lucidum, and mycelial microstructure was investigated. Coherent and pulse light caused a greater stimulating effect comparing to that of non-coherent and continuous light.
GROUTH ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR (VUILL.) TIRABOSCHI UNDER EXPOSURE DIFFERENT DOSES OF IONAZING RADIATION IN MODEL SISTEMS
Under influence of small dozes of ionizing radiation at strains A. versicolor, isolated from inner locations of object "Shelter" with different level of radioactive pollution, activation of growth (radiation hormesis) which degree of expressiveness depend on radioactivity of their isolation place and a growth phase was shown. At control strain under exposure of small dozes ionizing radiation the insignificant inhibition of growth in both phases was revealed. At action of big dozes of ionizing radiation (1000 Gy) at strains A. versicolor, isolated from inner locations of object "Shelter", new adaptive reaction — the adaptive response which is shown not only in resistance to big dozes of radiation, but also in stimulation growth processes was revealed. At control strain significant (more than on 60%) inhibition of growth was observed. It was established, that at strains, isolated from inner locations of object "Shelter", adaptation to action of ionizing radiation in a range of dozes from 1 Gy up to 1000 Gy was generated.
DYNAMICS OF HEAT RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT IN PLANTS AFTER THE SHORT-TERM HEAT HARDENING: CONNECTION WITH FLUCTUATIONS OF THE PEROXIDES CONTENT
The influence of one-minute hardening by high temperatures on the heat resistance development of Pinus sylvestris L. and Triticum aestivum L. plantlets and isolated cotyledons of Cucumis sativus L. has been studied. The presence of three phases of the heat resistance change is revealed: decrease, increase and stabilization-unhardening. In the phase of low heat resistance in all objects the peroxides contents increase has been registered, which was subsequently replaced by some decrease. The antioxidant ionol levelled the peroxides content increase caused by hardening in plant tissues. Thus, the ionol blocked the manifestation of the heat hardening effect of all three plants species. The conclusion is drawn on the reactive oxygen species participation in the induction of development of heat resistance in plants.
A TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE GENUS RAPHANUS (SECT. RAPHANUS; BRASSICACEAE)
A brief history of studies of the genus Raphanus is presented. The taxonomic revision of species of the section Raphanus is proposed. The species is defined as a morphological-ecological-geographical race. The section includes two subsections: subsect. Raphanus (R. chinensis Miller, R. sativus L. and R. niger Miller) and subsect. Siliquiformis (Sazon.) Iljinskaja, comb. nov. (R. caudatus L. f. and R. indicus Sinsk.). There are 3 species (R. sativus, R. niger, and recently introduced R. chinensis) of the section Raphanus occurring in the Ukrainian flora. The nomenclatural citations, data on distribution, habitats, and taxonomic notes are given for each species.
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SPECIES OF VERONICA L. SECT. PSEUDOLYSIMACHIUM W.D.J. KOCH IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
Pollen grains of 12 species of Veronica sect. Pseudolysimachium were investigated, including 9 species for which no previous palynological data existed. Five types of sculpture of the exine surface have been identified and described: psilate, rugulate, foveate, rugulate - foveate, and reticulate. Pollen grains are characterized by morphologically complex 3(4)-colporate aperture types. The data obtained provide evidence in favor of the phylogenetic unity of this group and its distinction from other sections of the genus Veronica, which are characterized by different complexes of palynomorphological characters (3- colpate pollen grains, striate, striate - reticulate, granulate, tuberculate, retipilate and spinulose sculpture).
KARYOLOGY OF SOME EUROPEAN SPECIES OF GENTIANA L. (GENTIANACEAE)
The work summarizes the literature data on chromosome numbers of European species of Gentiana and our original results concerning their cytogenetics from various localities in Ukraine. Based on the comparison of the results of our own studies with those of literature, there were confirmed previously reported chromosome numbers in G. lutea, G. punctata, G. acaulis, G. verna, G. cruciata and G. pneumonanthe, as well as those of one race of G. asclepiadea. Karyological details for some sections and individual members of the genus in context of their propagation were considered. The necessity for further karyological investigations to elucidate Gentiana species evolution and taxonomy was discussed.
FORMOGENESIS IN HERBACEOUS PLANTS: ALLOMETRY AND ALLOCATION
At 3 species of meadow herbaceous legumes and 5 species of field weeds, complete morphometric analysis has been carried out. 126 соеfficients two-variant allometry and 45 соеfficients multivariate allometry have been developed for several parameters (underground phytomass, leaf surface, branching degree, height, phytomass generative structures, number of flowers and fruits). It has been established that allometry соеfficients vary over а wide range and their value does not tend towards а multiplicity factor 4, which does not confirm the «canonical rule» of K. Niklas. Character of changes in allometry соеfficient values асcording to ecologo-соеnotic gradients testifies that allocation and allometry reactions in different plant species to changes in growth conditions are species-specific. When stress factors' асtion is increased, a tendency toward transition from positive allometry to isometry, and then to а negative allometry, has been established. Within the group of generative plants, no dependence of allometry соеfficients on the size of an individual plant has been shown. Multivariate allometry has confirmed that at generative plants under optimum conditions the allocation of substances in reproductive structures prevails. In general, herbaceous plant growth, allocation of matter and energy resources, and formogenesis process assessed by allometry соеfficients, арpear to be flexible and highly variable, thus reflecting processes of their individual compensatory adaptation.
THE FLORISTIC COMPLEX OF ARTIFICIAL DEPOSITS OF SANDS IN FLOODPLAINS OF THE DESNA RIVER: FORMATION AND MODERN STATUS
Formation of the floristic complex on artificial deposit s of sands in flood plains of the Desna R iver in the initial stages is formed mainly by xeromorphic apophytes and alien plants. In due course the role of autochthonous elements in floristic complex grows. The transformation of artificial ly deposit ed sands into a sand-pit has caused reduction of xeromorphic species and increase of the role of hygromorphic species.
The complete transformation of the marsh ecotope in floodplains of the Desna River into artificially deposited sands and the sand-pit, which has caused changes of hydrological and salt modes, has resulted in occurrence in the spontaneous flora of the region of new species (Ceratocarpus arenarius, Lactuca tatarica, Grindelia squarrosa, Hippophaё rhamnoides, Typha laxmannii), has created favorable conditions for sporadically occurring species of faintly saline ecotopes (Salsola tragus, Taraxacum bessarabicum, Bolboschoenus maritimus, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Triglochin palustre, Rumex maritimus, R. ucrainucus, R. thyrsiflorus), also promoted intensive distribution in the local territory of Hippophaё rhamnoides and Typha laxmannii.
THE FIRST FIND OF TRIFOLIUM SPRYGINII BELYAEVA & SIPLIV. (FABACEAE LINDL.) IN UKRAINE
Data on finding of a species of vascular plant new for Ukraine, Trifolium spryginii Belyaev а & Sipliv., are provided. Total range, ecotopes, and also phytocenoses in the discovered locality were characterized.
AIZOPSIS AIZOON (L.) GRULICH (CRASSULACEAE) — A NEW ERGASIOPHYTE IN THE FLORA OF UKRAINE
During floristic surveys in the summer of 2007 in Chrenihiv a new ergasiophyte Aizopsis aizoon (L.) Grulich (Sedum aizoon L.) was found in a semi-natural ecotope. The descriptions, ecology, location and distribution in other countries of Europe and Asia are provided.
VERATRUM NIGRUM IN LEFT-BANK OF UKRAINE
The range of Veratrum nigrum L. in Ukraine is described. New localities of the species in areas to the east of the Dnieper are reported. Habitats of the species are characterized.
CHRYSOPOGON GRYLLUS (L.) TRIN. (POACEAE), A NEW PLANT SPECIES FOR AZOV-SIVASH NATIONAL NATURE PARK
Plant diversity patterns of Azov-Sivash National Nature Park is characterized. The plots of Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin., a new rare species for the park area, is presented.
FIRST RECORDS OF LEVEILLULA HELICHRYSI HELUTA ET SIMONIAN (ERYSIPHALES) IN BELARUS'
Information about records of Leveillula helichrysi Heluta et Simonian (Erysiphales, Ascomycota) in Belarus' is provided. The fungus is a new species for this country. It was described from Ukraine and later recorded in Germany and Russia. It is supposed that the fungus will be found in other countries of Europe. Probably L. helichrysi also occurs in Poland, where it was reported under the misapplied name L. taurica (Lйv.) G. Arnaud.
CYTOKININS LOCALIZATION AND DYNAMICS DURING FORMATION OF REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS IN ZEA MAYS L.
Cytokinins distribution in leaves, roots, some internodes, male and female inflorescences during vegetative growth and organogenesis of reproductive organs of Zea mays L. was studied. Decrease in zeatin and zeatin riboside contents in leaves, roots and internodes has been shown. Levels of these hormones increased in both male and female inflorescences during their development. It can be assumed that cytokinins biosynthesis in reproductive organs is partly or completely autonomous, which is a factor that provides high metabolic level during active growth.
PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF CYANOPHYTA UNDER THE IMPACT OF RED LIGHT
The effect of additional red illumination of light-emitting diodes (LED) ( lmax = 630 nm, Dl = 20 nm) added to background light of luminescent lamps on the photosynthetic apparatus and growth of several species of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) has been studied. It has been shown the species-specific dependence of algal reactions on red backlighting. The greatest decrease of pigments has been found in cyanobacteria of order Oscillatoriales. The most marked alterations among pigments of phycobilisomes was observed. The percentage of phycoerythrin in genus Nostoc was decreased and the sum of blue pigments increased under the red backlighting. These data may indicate the chromatic adaptation. The ratio of phycobiliproteins were stable under the red backlighting, whereas the ratio of phycocyanin and phycoerythin to chlorophyll markedly decreased; on the contrary, the carotenoids/chlorophyll ratio was increased. The addition of red light to background of white fluorescent lamp illumination resulted in an increase of biomass accumulation, especially in Spirulina platensis.
These data show substantial rearrangements of the photosynthetic apparatus and specific reaction of algae to the red backlighting. The obtained results can be useful for cultivation of algae.
PRO-ANTIOXIDANTS IN LEAVES OF SOME SPECIES OF TROPICAL ORCHIDS UNDER CONDITIONS OF LOW-TEMPERATURE ADAPTATIONS
The effects of acclimation temperatures +25° С and +15° С on the content of lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA), photosynthetic pigments and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the leaves of Calanthe cardioglossa, Cattleya bowringiana and Paphiopedilum appletonianum plants, propagated by seeds through in vitro culture, were studied. It has been shown that Cattleya bowringiana and Paphiopedilum appletonianum are the most cold resistant plant species. In the leaves of these species, MDA content increased to lower levels than that seen in the leaves of warm-loving Calanthe cardioglossa. On the contrary, SOD activities were more significant in the leaves of Cattleya bowringiana and Paphiopedilum appletonianum than it was observed in the leaves of Calanthe cardioglossa.